Wall Follower

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wall follower robot using
8051

INTRODUCTION:
The microcontroller incorporates all the features that are found in microprocessor. The microcontroller has built in ROM, RAM, Input Output ports, Serial Port, timers, interrupts and clock circuit. A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip. Microcontrollers are usually dedicated devices embedded within an application. For example, microcontrollers are used as engine controllers in automobiles and as exposure and focus controllers in cameras. In order to serve these applications, they have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc. The I/O, memory, and on-chip peripherals of a microcontroller are selected depending on the specifics of the target application. Since microcontrollers are powerful digital processors, the degree of control and programmability they provide significantly enhances the effectiveness of the application. The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970s. The 8051 family with its many enhanced members enjoys the largest market share, estimated to be about 40%, among the various microcontroller architectures.

The microcontroller has on chip peripheral devices. In this unit firstly we differentiate microcontroller from microprocessor then we will discuss about Hardware details of 8051 and then introduce the Assembly level language in brief. Microcontrollers

• Microcontroller (MC) may be called computer on chip since it has basic features of microprocessor with internal ROM, RAM, Parallel and serial ports within single chip. Or we can say microprocessor with memory and ports is called as microcontroller. This is widely used in washing machines, vcd player, microwave oven, robotics or in industries.

Microcontroller and Embedded Systems
• Microcontroller can be classified on the basis of their bits processed like 8bit MC, 16bit MC.
• 8 bit microcontroller, means it can read, write and process 8 bit data. Ex. 8051 microcontroller. Basically 8 bit specifies the size of data bus. 8 bit microcontroller means 8 bit data can travel on the data bus or we can read, write process 8 bit data.

PIN DIAGRAM OF 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER:

Description of each pin is discussed here:
• VCC 5V supply
• VSS: GND
• XTAL2/XTALI are for oscillator input
• Port 0 – 32 to 39 – AD0/AD7 and P0.0 to P0.7
• Port 1 – 1 to 8 – P1.0 to P1.7
• Port 2 – 21 to 28 – P2.0 to P2.7 and A 8 to A15
• Port 3 – 10 to 17 – P3.0 to P3.7
• P 3.0 – RXD – Serial data input – SBUF
• P 3.1 – TXD – Serial data output – SBUF
• P 3.2 – INT0 – External interrupt 0 – TCON 0.1
• P 3.3 – INT1 – External interrupt 1 – TCON 0.3
• P 3.4 – T0 – External timer 0 input – TMOD
• P 3.5 – T1 – External timer 1 input – TMOD
• P 3.6 –WR – External memory write cycle – Active LOW • P 3.7 – RD – External memory read cycle – Active LOW • RST – for Restarting 8051
• ALE – Address latch enable
1 – Address on AD 0 to AD 7
0 – Data on AD 0 to AD 7
• PSEN – Program store enable

8051 Architecture:
Each block is explained as:
ALU — Arithmetic Logical Unit
This unit is used for the arithmetic calculations.
A-Accumulator
This register is used for arithmetic operations. This is also bit addressable and 8 bit register.
B-Register
This register is used in only two instructions MUL AB and DIV AB. This is also bit addressable and 8 bit register.
PC-Program Counter
• Points to the address of next instruction to be executed from ROM

8051 Flag Bits and PSW Register
1. Used to indicate the Arithmetic condition of ACC.
2. Flag register in 8051 is called as program status word (PSW). This special function register PSW is also bit addressable and 8 bit wide means each bit can be set or reset independently.
There are four flags in 8051
•...
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