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LITERATURE UNDER U.S. COLONIALISM (1898-1945)

Revolution of 1896 – taga-bayan-taga-bukid polarization (def.: division of a group into factions

Tejeros Convention
* Taga-bayan – ilustrados of Cavite who wrested from Bonifacio; masses the leadership of the revolution * Education – requirement for leadership
* Wealth – requirement for education
* Filipino native elite – succeeded in reserving for itself the role of determining Filipino response to independence and nation-building

Philippine Republic in Malolos – first inauguration
* Taga-bukid had been shoved aside by the ilustrados
* Ilustrados:
* Pedro Paterno
* Benito Legarda
* Felipe Calderon
*
Taga-Bayan Culture – colonial creation
* Owed intellectual and emotional allegiance to the culture of the colonizers * Historical ties that ought to have bound the ilustrados from the taga-bukid: * claims of personal convenience

* preferential treatment
* class interests
* Taga-Bukid – described as unlettered, unpropertied populace during the revolutionary struggle * Confronted with a choice between continuing with honor a rigorous struggle alongside the taga-bukid, ilustrados accommodated itself to foreign control 1900

* President of the republic was still eluding/ avoiding American troops in the Cordillera mountains * Prominent members of Aguinaldo’s cabinet had already gone to the side of the Americans * Partido Federal – founded

Members:
* Pedro Paterno – president of the Malolos Congress
* Felipe Buencamino – director of public works
* Benito Legarda – VP of Malolos Congress
* Felipe Calderon – principal author of the Malolos Constitution

American colonial authorities – capitalized on the capitulation of the ilustrados in urging Filipinos to bring Filipino-American war to an early end through surrender July 4, 1902
* U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt – proclaimed that the “insurrection” was officially ended * Filipino guerillas - continued to inflict losses on American troops and their local mercenary army * Remaining officers of the revolutionary army (Katipunan): * Artemio Ricarte

* Macario Sakay

Laws that were applied to counteract guerilla activity in Manila and provinces: 1. Sedition Law (1901) – death penalty or prolonged imprisonment * Filipinos who advocated independence or separation from the U. S * Anyone who spoke, wrote, or published “scurrilous libels” against the U.S. or the colonial government 2. Brigandage Act (1902) – classified guerillas as bandits * Bandits – Bandoleros

* Making membership in an armed band or giving aid to such * Punishable by death or a long prison sentence
3. Reconcentration Act (1903) – Deprive guerillas of their cover by resettling: * In fixed places where they could be watched
* Residents from rural areas where guerillas were operating 4. Flag Law (1907) – prohibited the display of the flags or emblems associated with the Katipunan and the Republic

1907 – pacification by military campaign had begun to slacken

Colonial Administration – started setting up political institutions that would pre-empt or co-opt nationalistic leadership

Taga-bayan-taga-bukid dichotomy – sharpened by the establishment of the Philippine Assembly in 1907

Qualifications for participation in the election:
* Owned real property
* Could read, write, or speak English or Spanish

Filipinization – drew more and more educated Filipinos to contribute to the effort of running the colonial government

Political parties – allowed to operate
* Developed a wider section of the populace a sense of participation in the discussion of public issues and promulgation of orders or laws Filipino leaders – took it for granted that the independence of the Philippines would have to be secured within the limits set by the colonial system

Philippine Literature – burst forth with vitality and...
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