Vulnerability, Poverty, Seasonality, Food Security and Microfinance Compiled By
Tariq Md. Shahriar
Institute of Microfinance (InM)
E-4/B, Agargaon Administrative Area, Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207. Bangladesh. February, 2007.
1 - 53
Asia Bangladesh South Asia Other Regions of Asia Africa The Americas & Other Countries Index By Authors
54 - 111 54 - 95 96 - 105 106 - 111 112 - 137 138 – 141 142 - 147
Acharya, S. S. (1992) "Drought and Response of Rural Families", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 36: 1894-1896. Adato, M. & Feldman, S. (2001) “Empowering Women to Achieve Food Security”. 2020 Focus Series, IFPRI, Washington, D.C. Abstract: Impoverishment is characterized by social differences—gender, generational, and ethnic, among others—that structure people’s access to economic and social assets. Gender inequalities are embedded within households and among kin, in the labor market and informal economic relations, and across community and wider networks. Recent investments to strengthen women’s position within these social units and empower women as decision makers have reduced inequality and improved wellbeing. They are addressing women’s needs for education, health care and nutrition training, credit, and employment. Even with increasing returns to these investments, some women require “safety nets”—private and public forms of social insurance—in response to shocks including drought, sudden illness or death of a family wage earner, job loss, political conflict, or dramatic currency devaluation. Buffers are also needed to reduce vulnerability during persistent crises in agricultural production, declines in landholding, pervasive or seasonal unemployment, or old age. Women find it harder than men to weather these changes since they have less access to employment in alternative labor markets or to credit and support networks outside the family and community.
Ahsan, Q. (2005) "Micro-credit, risk coping and the incidence of rural-to-urban migration," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Kiel 2005 2, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee; Development Economics. Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the rural poor of south Asia and their struggle to cope with the seasonal risk of unemployment and the ensuing income risks. In the absence of formal credit or insurance markets the rural poor typically resort to, among other options, the following informal strategies to cope with seasonal income risks: (i) seasonal rural-to-urban migration, and (ii) mutual (ex-post) transfers between families of friends and relatives. Access to credit through a microfinance institution could also provide a competing source of insurance. The question raised in this paper is how the access to credit may affect the more traditional/time honoured means of risk coping, such as seasonal migration. Given that credit, i.e., a creditfinanced activity, is potentially a substitute for seasonal migration, it is reasonable to argue that easy access to credit (or high return on credit) will lower the incidence of migration. However, there also exists a potential complementarity between the two activities (if implemented jointly) in terms of gains due to diversification of income risks. That is, given that income from migration is not typically subject to the same shocks as income generated by a credit-financed activity, a joint adoption of both activities creates opportunities for diversification of risk in the family incomes portfolio. If the diversification gains are large enough then the adoption of both activities jointly will be preferred to adopting either of the activities individually. In that event, introduction of microfinance in rural societies may result in raising the incidence of migration. The joint adoption case for rural households is modelled using a choice theoretic framework,...