Vroom's Expectancy Theory

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In life, most people have to go to work every day to pay bills, buy desirables, and in many cases to take care of others dependent on them. Each person’s pay check motivates them to do their job. However, is each person feeling happy or appreciated and working to their fullest potential? Every workplace needs to get the most out of each individual person working for that paycheck in order to make the organization better as a whole. To obtain this, there are managers and sometimes several levels of managers to lead the workplace as we know it.

There have been several behavioral theories studied to understand how to be effective in improving performance in the work place. These theories are better described as management theories. One theory in particular, which we will discuss further, is Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. This theory focuses on motivation. Motivation is the key and will be achieved if an employee feels that their hard work and efforts will lead to a job well done, which will then lead to an outcome rewarding the employee. The theory is that the level of effort and motivation is based on the product of these three key factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. (site) Expectancy suggests that the efforts of work will result in a performance goal. So, the employee in a given situation must believe that the harder efforts they put forth, the better performance will be achieved as a result. This involves having belief in the organization and managers. It seems this employee and manager relationship should have a good foundation of trust and appreciation for the expectancy and motivation to be evident. The next factor is called instrumentality. The employee should also believe that the better performance achieved will lead to a reward for the associated outcome. Finally, the last key is called valence, which is the value of this reward to the employee. A manager should understand that the reward offered for the performance must...
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