History of Volleyball
Volleyball has come a long way from the dusty old YMCA gymnasium of Holyoke, Massachusetts where visionary William G. Morgan invented the sport back in 1895. As the Director of Physical Education at Holyoke YMCA, Morgan’s primary responsibility was the development and administration of exercise and sports classes for YMCA members. Though basketball (invented only four years earlier) was quickly gaining popularity among young men across the nation, Morgan observed that many of the older members found basketball to be too violent and vigorous. Prompted by this demand for a mild, non-contact, recreational activity better suited to middle-aged business men, Morgan invented the game of volleyball, which he originally called “mintonette.” Morgan relied heavily on his personal training methods and practical experience as inspiration for the new sport. His first experiments were essentially trial and error, detailed in his own account of the process: “In search of an appropriate game, tennis occurred to me, but this required rackets, balls, net, and other equipment, so it was eliminated, but the idea of a net seemed a good one. We raised it to a height of about six feet, six inches (1.98 meters) from the ground, just above the head of an average man but we needed a ball and among those we tried were a basketball bladder, but this was too light and too slow. We therefore tried the basketball itself, which was too big and too heavy." Morgan eventually pieced together the right sport and was invited in the spring of 1896 to give a formal demonstration of the new game at a national conference for YMCA Physical Education Directors in Springfield, Illinois. At the conference, Morgan explained that the object of the game was simply to keep the ball in movement over a high net from one side to the other—there was no restriction on the number of contacts per individual or team, no limit to the number of players allowed per side and no position rotation. After witnessing the demonstration, Professor Alfred T. Halstead called attention to the volleying nature of the game and suggested that the name mintonette be replaced with “volley ball.” Morgan and the conference accepted the new name, and thus, “volley ball” (changed in 1952 to volleyball) was born. Volleyball Equipment
The sport of volleyball requires the type of sporting equipment below. Products may be available to aid in the instruction of volleyball skills.
The size of the ball should be no larger than 81 centimeters (32 inches) in circumference and weigh no more than 226 grams (8 ounces). It should be as close as possible to the regulation-size volleyball. The ball shall be spherical in shape and made of flexible leather or synthetic leather with a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material. Its color may be a uniform light color, or a combination of colors. The inside pressure shall be 0.30- 0.32 kg/cm2 (4.26 to 4.61 psi). In Modified Team Competition a lighter weight, leather or synthetic leather, modified volleyball may be used.
While it is recommended that a regulation 9 meter x 18 meter ( 29 feet 6 inches x 59 feet) court be used, the Special Olympics modification allows for the service line to be moved closer to the net, but no closer than 4.5 meters (14 feet 9 inches). If a regulation size court is unavailable, then modifications may be made to allow for play in a safe manner.
Used to separate the teams during play, men's net height of 2.43 meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) is used for regular and Unified Sports. Women's net height of 2.24 meters (7 feet 4 1/8 inches) is used for Women's and Modified Team Competition. The official net is 1 meter (39 inches) wide and 9.5 to 10 meters (31 feet 6 inches to 33 feet) long (with 25 to 50 cm [10 inches to 19 ½ inches] on each side of the side bands), made of 10 cm (4 inch) square black mesh. At its top a horizontal band, 7 cm (2 ¾ inches) wide and made of two-fold...
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