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Explorations in Language
Acquisition and Use

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Explorations in Language
Acquisition and Use
THE TAIPEI LECTURES

Stephen D. Krashen

HEINEMANN
Portsmouth, NH

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Heinemann
A division of Reed Elsevier Inc.
361 Hanover Street
Portsmouth, NH 03801–3912
www.heinemann.com
Offices and agents throughout the world
C

2003 by Stephen D. Krashen

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a review.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Krashen, Stephen D.
Explorations in language acquisition and use : the Taipei lectures / Stephen Krashen. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-325-00554-0
1. Language and languages—Study and teaching. 2. Language acquisition. I. Title. P51 .K666 2003
418 .0071—dc21

2002013703

Editor: Lois Bridges
Production: Elizabeth Valway
Cover design: Joni Doherty
Typesetter: TechBooks
Manufacturing: Steve Bernier
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
07 06 05 04 03 VP 1 2 3 4 5

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Contents
INTRODUCTION

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1

Principles of Language Acquisition
Part 1: Theory 1
Part 2: Applications 6
Notes 14

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Free Voluntary Reading: Still a Very Good Idea
Research on Free Reading 15
Light Reading As a Bridge 22
Other Advantages of Reading 22
Motivating Students to Read 24
Some Innovations 25
Conclusion 26
Notes 26

3

Current Issues and Controversies: Does Grammar Teaching
Work? What About “Comprehensible Output”? 30
The Role of Grammar 30
Comprehensible Output? 59
Notes 65

4

How Reading and Writing Make You Smarter, or, How Smart
People Read and Write 68
How We Get Smart 68
Some Notes on Incubation 69
The Research on Learning by Problem Solving 70
Reading and Cognitive Development 72
Writing and Cognitive Development 73
Oral Language 77
Conclusion 78
Obstacles 79
Notes 80

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CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

INDEX

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11:33

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CONTENTS

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Introduction

O

n November 17 and 18, 2001, I presented a series of four lectures at National Taipei University in Taiwan. I attempted to review the fundamentals of second-language acquisition theory, present some of the original research supporting the theory as well as more recent studies, present counterarguments to criticisms, and explore some new areas that appear to have promise for progress in both theory and application. This volume is based on these lectures. Chapters 1, 2, and 4 correspond closely to three of the four lectures presented. Chapter 3 includes material presented in the fourth lecture but also includes material discussed in response to questions from the audience, as well as a discussion of a recent paper by Norris and Ortega dealing with the effect of grammar instruction. Chapter 1 reviews the central hypotheses underlying what I consider to be current theory in language acquisition. These hypotheses have not only survived well over the years but have also proven to be useful in other areas of language education. So far, research results remain...
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