Vital Signs

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Vital Signs

The measurements of assessments that are included in the vital signs 1. temperature
2. pulse
3. respiration
4. blood pressure
5. pain

Differences between core and surface temperature:
1. core – temperature of the deep tissue of the body
2. surface – temperature of the skin

Classifications of fevers:
1. constant – remain elevated consistently and fluctuates very little 2. intermittent – rise and fall – sometimes goes back to normal temperature 3. remittent – similar to intermittent except the temperature does not return to normal at all until the patient is well

The tympanic membrane is a good source for measuring core temperature because the tympanic membrane shares its blood supply with the hypothalamus, the body temperature control center.

A stethoscope is properly worn when the earpieces fit snugly and comfortably in the ears. The binurals will be angled and strong enough that the earpieces stay firm in the ears without causing discomfort.

The factors that influence pulse rate:
AgeExercise
Fever, heatAcute pain, anxiety
MedicationsHemorrhage
Postural changesMetabolism
Pulmonary conditionsUnrelieved severe pain, chronic pain

The technique for measuring blood pressure is to do it while counting a radial or an apical pulse, therefore the patient is unaware and will not consciously alter respirations

Factors that influence blood pressure:
AgeAnxiety, fear, pain emotional stress
MedicationsDirunal factors
RaceHormones
SexObesity
Family historyHigh cholesterol levels

The technique of measuring blood pressure:
1. inflate cuff around patient arm to compress the artery
2. listen to brachial artery with stethoscope to hear pulsating sounds 3. when you hear first sound take mental note of point on sphygmomanometer gauge 4. note again at which the sound disappears

Height and weight determination is important for:
1. assess growth and development
2. calculate drug dosage
3. assess...
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