Viscosity Science Lab
Purpose:
To determine of changing the viscosity will affect the time it takes for a marble to flow through a liquid.

Hypothesis:
If a marble is dropped into dish soap and corn syrup, than I predict that the marble in the dish soap will travel faster than the marble in the corn syrup because I know that the viscosity of the corn syrup is thicker than then the viscosity of the dish soap. Also, the particles in the corn syrup are more compact than those in the dish soap. This makes the marble sink faster in the dish soap than the corn syrup.

Apparatus:
* 2 identical marbles
* 250 Graduated Cylinders of 250mL
* 250mL of dish soap
* 250mL of corn syrup
* 1 timer/stopwatch

Procedure:
1. Drop one marble in the graduated cylinder of corn syrup and begin timing 2. Continue timing until the marble hits to the bottom and stop the timer 3. Record the time result in the qualitative chart

4. Record all observations in the quantitative chart
5. Repeat all steps from 1-4 fir the graduated cylinder of the dish soap 6. Clean up the work area

Observations:
Qualitative Observations

Dish Soap| Corn Syrup|
* Green * Quick * Pungent * Bubbles * Translucent * Level rose * Bright * Not Viscous| * Level Rose * Very Slow * Bubbles * Translucent * Pungent * Viscous * Muted * Dark|

Data:
See graph attached at the end of this lab.
Conclusion:
Yes, my hypothesis was correct. I discovered that a marble travels approximately 7 seconds in 250mL of dish soap and approximately 87 seconds in corn syrup. Also, I found that the corn syrup is more viscous than the dish soap which is what caused the slow and fast sinking. This result occurred because the particles in the corn syrup are much larger than normal particles. These large particles within the corn syrup take up more space....

...CHE202, PHYSICOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS 2 , LABORATORY
REPORT 1
EXPERIMENT 1: VISCOSITY
Assistant: Gamze Gümüşlü
Date of the experiment: February 25, 2009
Submission date of the report: March 4, 2009
OBJECT:
The aim of this experiment is to measure the relative viscosity and by obtaining this to determine the viscosity composition curve for a two-component liquid system.
APPARATUS:
1- Electric Weight Scale
2- Pycnometer
3- Pipette
4- Stop Watch
5- Salt Solutions with Varying NaCl concentrations
6- Capillary Viscometer
7- A Short Rubber Tubbing
[pic] [pic]
Salt Solutions with Varying NaCl concentrations Electric Weight Scale
[pic] [pic] [pic] Pycnometer Capillary Viscometer Pipette
[pic] [pic]
A Short Rubber Tubbing Stop Watch
PROCEDURE:
1- We determined the weight of each five pycnometer separately by using the electric weight scale and recorded the datas. Then we filled them with salt solutions which have varying NaCl concentrations and while we were doing this we make sure that the solution level in the pycnometer reaches the top of the capillary and it was free of air bubbles. We carefully dried the outside...

...Lab report: Viscosity of Liquids
Introduction
This experiment focuses on measurements of different trials of various concentrations. The collected data is used to compare and contrast to the ideal binary solutions and their components. The Ostwald viscometer is a useful laboratory equipment to measure the viscosities of many binary solutions.
Background
Molecules have the ability to slide around each other, result in a flow. Such a flow has a resistance called viscosity. Microscopically, viscosity is the energy association of molecules in a liquid state. The energy needs to be applied to overcome the attractive forces between the molecules in order for the liquid to flow. The heat of vaporization or surface tensions are examples of attractive forces.
This is the Newton’s law of viscous flow:
dfx / dA = η (∂vx /∂z)z
Fluids that behave like the equation above are called Newtonian fluids or they go laminar flow.
Viscosity coefficient η =kg m-1 s-1
Viscosity measurement is important in many applications. This property of the fluid can be used to determine the rate of mass transport, diffusion or within that liquid when it is to be used as a solvent. These are all fundamental and intrinsic property of a liquid.
Mass transport through a circular tube of small internal diameter by Poiseuille:
dV / dt = π r4 ΔP / 8 η L
dV/dt = volume flow rate of liquid
r...

...characteristics of an important parameter. Fluid flow when the inertial force F g and viscous forces (the friction) F m ratio known as the Reynolds number.
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of conducting this experiment were:
1. To visualize laminar, transitional and turbulent flows.
2. To determine the conditions under which types of flow occur.
3. To compute Reynolds Number (Re) on fluid flow conditions.
EQUIPMENTS AND APPARATUS
a) Dye reservoir.
b) Stilling tank.
c) Observation tube.
d) Stopwatch
e) Graduated cylinder
THEORY
Reynolds number is used to distinguish between laminar, transitional and turbulent flows.
Re = Reynolds number
V = Fluid velocity (m/s)
d = Pipe diameter (0.012m)
v = Kinematic viscosity (0.893 x 10-6m2/s)
Laminar Flow, Re < 2000
Laminar flow denotes a steady condition where all stream lines follow parallel paths. Under this condition, the dye will remain easily identifiable as a solid core.
Transitional Flow, 2000 < Re < 4000
Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence in the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows behaves in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing, and have different equations that predict their behavior.
Turbulent Flow, Re > 4000
Turbulent flow denotes an unsteady condition where stream lines interact causing shear plane collapse and mixing of...

...also observe the characteristic of the flow whether is it laminar, transition and turbulent flow.
THEORY:
Reynolds number basically determines the transition of fluid flow form laminar flow to turbulent flow. When the value of Reynolds number is less than 2300, laminar flow will occur and the resistance to flow will be independent of the pipe wall roughness (e). Meanwhile, turbulent flow occurs when the value of Reynolds number is exceeding 4000. For large viscous force, whereby Re value is less than 2300, viscous effects are great enough to damp any disturbance in the flow and the flow remains laminar. The flow is called laminar because the flow takes place in layers. Any combination of low velocity, small diameter, or high kinematic viscosity which results in Re value of less than 2300 will produce laminar flow. As Re increases, the viscous damping of flow disturbances or perturbations decreases relative to the inertial effects. Because of a lack of viscous damping, disturbances are amplified until the entire flow breaks down into in irregular motion. There is still a definite flow direction, but there is an irregular motion superimposed on the average motion. Thus, for turbulent flow in a pipe, the fluid is flowing in the downstream direction, fluid particles have an irregular motion in addition to the average motion. The turbulent fluctuations are inherently unsteady and three dimensional. As a result, particles which pass though a given point in the...

...1
LAB SHEET - VISCOSITY OF GLYCERINE Aim: To measure the viscosity of glycerine using Stokes' method in which steel balls are allowed to fall through glycerine. Theory: (i) If a body of mass m falls through a viscous fluid, it will accelerate until the combination of the viscous force (or drag) FD, and the buoyancy force FB balance the gravitational force Fg (= mg) FD + FB = Fg (1)
When this equilibrium is reached, the body continues to fall, but at a constant velocity, called the terminal velocity. (ii) Archimedes' Principle states that the buoyancy force acting on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. If the body immersed is a sphere of volume V and radius r, the volume of fluid displaced is also V. Thus if the density of the fluid is L, FB = VLg 4 = r3 Lg 3 (iii)
(2)
Stokes showed that for a sphere of radius r moving through a fluid of viscosity , the viscous drag is FD = 6vr (3) where v is the steady velocity.
(iv)
If the density of the sphere is S, then the gravitational force is 4 Fg = 3 r3 Sg (4)
(v)
Substituting (2), (3) and (4) into (1) 4 4 6vr + 3 r3 Lg = 3 r3Sg 4 3 r (S – L)g = 6vr 3 r2 =
9 2 (S L ) g
v
(5)
The terminal velocity v can be determined by measuring the time t for steel balls to fall through a fixed distance s s v= (6) t Substituting this expression into (5) gives
r2
9 s 2 (S L ) g...

...the inviscid and incompressible flow is used. However in the real case, the viscosity cannot be neglect and the density of the flow is not always constant. Thus Bernoulli’s equation is not always correct. For the lab, it is reasonable to assume the flow is inviscid and incompressible. Firstly, the pitot was placed at the center of the flow. The skin friction (effect of viscosity) is inversely proportional to distance. Therefore the effect ofviscosity can be neglected in the pitot. Secondly, the speed of the flow is much lower than the speed of sound under the sonic condition. Therefore, the Mach number is low enough to neglect the change of density of the controlled volume and the controlled volume is almost incompressible. That is why we can estimate the velocity of the flow by Bernoulli’s equation and continuity equation.
As a result of the viscosity, the internal flow is constrained by the bounding walls and the effect grows during the entire flow. At the inflow region, the flow is nearly inviscid. After that, the boundary layers are growing along the duct which is called developing profile region. This is because the effect of viscosity is growing. At the centre of the duct, there is an inviscid core flow. When the boundary layers are merged, the flow is fully developed and the velocity is not affected by viscosity anymore. Meanwhile the static pressure decreases...

...Experiment 1: Viscosity of Liquids
Victoria Kulczak
Lab Partners: Laina Maines & Heidi Osterman
Date of Lab: 2/21/11
Due Date: 2/28/11
Abstract:
The goal of this experiment was to determine the viscosity of given liquids. Two different methods were employed, the first measures time of flow of several methanol-water solutions, from point A to point B. The second method involves dropping a foreign object, in this case a sphere, into a cylinder of glycerol and measuring the time it takes for it to travel a specific distance down the tube. The viscosity of a 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% methanol by volume solutions was measured to be 0.89, 1.28, 1.53, 1.46, 1.11 and 0.54±0.001P, respectively. The falling sphere method was performed under two different temperatures. At 5.7°C the viscosity of glycerol was calculated to be 29.8±0.1P and at 22.7°C it was 6.3±0.1P.
Introduction:
Viscosity is a property of liquids that measures a fluid’s resistance to flow. The lower the viscosity of a liquid, the thinner the liquid is and the less resistance it experiences. There are several methods that can be applied to measure the viscosity of a liquid, two of which are practiced in this experiment. The first part of the experiment uses an Ostwald viscometer to determine how long it takes a liquid to flow through the capillary tube of the viscometer....

...Objective:
The objective of this lab was to find and examine the viscosities of ideal and non-ideal solutions. The ideal being the toluene/p-xylene and the non-ideal being the methanol/water. The second objective of this lab was to investigate the temperature dependence of viscosity (Halpern, 17-1).
Introduction:
Viscosity is the resistance to flow of a certain fluid. In this experiment two solutions are used. According to the definition of viscosity mobile liquids have a relatively low viscosity. Fluidity is the reciprocal of viscosity, given as equation 1: F=1/ η. Fluidity is advantageous because solutions of mixed solutions of nonassociating liquids are roughly additive. In this experiment binary solutions are used, so if each pure liquid has fluidities Fa and Fb, the fluidity of a mixture is given by: Equation1 (Halpern, 17-3).
F=xAFA•+xBFB• where Xa and Xb are the mole fractions.
The viscosity of the mixture is given as:
ln η = XA ln η •A + XB ln η •B Equation 2 (Halpern, 17-3)
The second part of this lab is to measure the temperature dependence of viscosity. It is known that the viscosity of a pure liquid will increase exponentially. If the flow time of a liquid is measures...