In this practical, viscometry and rheometry are introduced. Viscometry is the measurement of viscosity while rheometry refers to the experimental techniques used to determine the rheological properties of materials, that is the quantitative and qualitative relationships between deformations and stresses and their derivatives. The definition of viscosity was put on a quantitative basis by Newton, who was first to realize that the rate of flow was directly related to the applied stress. The constant of proportionality is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity, more usually referred to simply as the viscosity. Simple fluids which obey this relationship are referred to as Newtonian fluids and those which do not are known as non-Newtonian.

In this experiment, single point instruments such as capillary viscometer and falling sphere viscometer are used to determine the viscosity of Newtonian liquid. For capillary viscometer, the rate of flow of the fluid through the capillary is measured under the influence of gravity or an externally applied pressure. The important equation for the calculation of dynamic viscosity using a capillary viscometer is:

Ƞ= Kρt
where K is the Instrument constant, ρ is the Density of the the Newtonian liquid and t is the Time. Based on the results, the viscosity of the Newtonian liquid A is 0.0256 Pa s. For the falling sphere viscometer, Stokes’ Law is used to determine the relationship between the rate of fall of a sphere through a liquid and the dynamic viscosity of the liquid. Ƞ=2 Rs2(ρs-ρ)F9 U

Based on the results, the dynamic viscosity of the Newtonian test liquid B 28.578 Pa s.
In the next experiment, the rheological behaviour of 5 pharmaceutical materials (glycerol, starch, ZnO glycerol, 10% Bentonite and aqueous cream 1:1) are tested using a rotational viscometer. By plotting graphs of Shear Stress versus rps (proportional to shear rate) for each material, the flow behaviour of each material can be described. From the graph, it...

...Lab report: Viscosity of Liquids
Introduction
This experiment focuses on measurements of different trials of various concentrations. The collected data is used to compare and contrast to the ideal binary solutions and their components. The Ostwald viscometer is a useful laboratory equipment to measure the viscosities of many binary solutions.
Background
Molecules have the ability to slide around each other, result in a flow. Such a flow has a resistance called viscosity. Microscopically, viscosity is the energy association of molecules in a liquid state. The energy needs to be applied to overcome the attractive forces between the molecules in order for the liquid to flow. The heat of vaporization or surface tensions are examples of attractive forces.
This is the Newton’s law of viscous flow:
dfx / dA = η (∂vx /∂z)z
Fluids that behave like the equation above are called Newtonian fluids or they go laminar flow.
Viscosity coefficient η =kg m-1 s-1
Viscosity measurement is important in many applications. This property of the fluid can be used to determine the rate of mass transport, diffusion or within that liquid when it is to be used as a solvent. These are all fundamental and intrinsic property of a liquid.
Mass transport through a circular tube of small internal diameter by...

...Experiment 1: Viscosity of Liquids
Victoria Kulczak
Lab Partners: Laina Maines & Heidi Osterman
Date of Lab: 2/21/11
Due Date: 2/28/11
Abstract:
The goal of this experiment was to determine the viscosity of given liquids. Two different methods were employed, the first measures time of flow of several methanol-water solutions, from point A to point B. The second method involves dropping a foreign object, in this case a sphere, into a cylinder of glycerol and measuring the time it takes for it to travel a specific distance down the tube. The viscosity of a 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% methanol by volume solutions was measured to be 0.89, 1.28, 1.53, 1.46, 1.11 and 0.54±0.001P, respectively. The falling sphere method was performed under two different temperatures. At 5.7°C the viscosity of glycerol was calculated to be 29.8±0.1P and at 22.7°C it was 6.3±0.1P.
Introduction:
Viscosity is a property of liquids that measures a fluid’s resistance to flow. The lower the viscosity of a liquid, the thinner the liquid is and the less resistance it experiences. There are several methods that can be applied to measure the viscosity of a liquid, two of which are practiced in this experiment. The first part of the experiment uses an Ostwald viscometer to determine how long it takes a...

...find and examine the viscosities of ideal and non-ideal solutions. The ideal being the toluene/p-xylene and the non-ideal being the methanol/water. The second objective of this lab was to investigate the temperature dependence of viscosity (Halpern, 17-1).
Introduction:
Viscosity is the resistance to flow of a certain fluid. In this experiment two solutions are used. According to the definition of viscosity mobileliquids have a relatively low viscosity. Fluidity is the reciprocal of viscosity, given as equation 1: F=1/ η. Fluidity is advantageous because solutions of mixed solutions of nonassociating liquids are roughly additive. In this experiment binary solutions are used, so if each pure liquid has fluidities Fa and Fb, the fluidity of a mixture is given by: Equation1 (Halpern, 17-3).
F=xAFA•+xBFB• where Xa and Xb are the mole fractions.
The viscosity of the mixture is given as:
ln η = XA ln η •A + XB ln η •B Equation 2 (Halpern, 17-3)
The second part of this lab is to measure the temperature dependence of viscosity. It is known that the viscosity of a pure liquid will increase exponentially. If the flow time of a liquid is measures and the density is...

...39. The Viscosity of Liquids
After studying the present lecture, you will be able to
Define viscosity and viscosity coefficient
Outline the method to measure viscosity using Ostwald viscometer
Determine the average molecular weight of a polymer
Determine the surface concentration of 1-butanol in aqueous solution
Measure the distribution coefficient of a solute betweenn two solvents
39.1 Introduction
Viscosity, one of the transport properties, arises because of intermolecular attractive and relatively long-range forces. Viscosity coefficient ([pic]), a specific constant characteristic of a liquid could be expressed by the following equation of Poiseuille.
[pic] (39.1)
where V is the volume of liquid delivered in time t, through a capillary of radius r and length L, with a hydrostatic pressure P.
In an apparatus designed so that equal volumes of liquids can flow through the same capillary of length L and radius r, ( may be written as
[pic] (39.2)
If g remains constant in any given location and h, the height through which the liquid falls is kept constant, above equation becomes,
[pic]...

...dealing with liquidviscosity and how they are used to help us measure liquids and gives us the accurate temperature that we have today. I first want to talk about viscosity and the role it plays in all of our lives. Viscosity is a liquid that does not have the ability to know the flow and what it is measuring like NS m-2. Then there is viscometers and there roll is to measure liquidviscosity which we still use today for plenty of things such as, chemical engineering, chemical processing and petroleum refining industries. Now let’s talk about surface tension. Surface tension plays a special roll in the viscosity properties it is the only one that has the energy to stretch a unite and thus able to change the surface area. And the surface tension units are N* mm-2=N/m. The surface tension is common of some liquids that are listed below.
Common
liquidViscosity
/cP Surface tension
/N m-1
Diethyl ether 0.233 0.0728
Chloroform 0.58 0.0271
Benzene 0.652 0.0289
Carbon
tetrachloride 0.969 0.0270
Water 1.002 0.0728
Ethanol 1.200 0.0228
Mercury 1.554 0.436
Olive oil 84 -
Castor oil 986 -
Glycerol 1490 0.0634
Glasses very large -
As the graph shows that there’s no direct correlation between both the viscosities and the surface tension. Both of these...

...CHE202, PHYSICOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS 2 , LABORATORY
REPORT 1
EXPERIMENT 1: VISCOSITY
Assistant: Gamze Gümüşlü
Date of the experiment: February 25, 2009
Submission date of the report: March 4, 2009
OBJECT:
The aim of this experiment is to measure the relative viscosity and by obtaining this to determine the viscosity composition curve for a two-component liquid system.
APPARATUS:
1- Electric Weight Scale
2- Pycnometer
3- Pipette
4- Stop Watch
5- Salt Solutions with Varying NaCl concentrations
6- Capillary Viscometer
7- A Short Rubber Tubbing
[pic] [pic]
Salt Solutions with Varying NaCl concentrations Electric Weight Scale
[pic] [pic] [pic] Pycnometer Capillary Viscometer Pipette
[pic] [pic]
A Short Rubber Tubbing Stop Watch
PROCEDURE:
1- We determined the weight of each five pycnometer separately by using the electric weight scale and recorded the datas. Then we filled them with salt solutions which have varying NaCl concentrations and while we were doing this we make sure that the solution level in the pycnometer reaches the top of the capillary and it was free of air bubbles. We carefully...

...Viscosity of Liquids
Part I: Low Viscosities
Mona Kanj Harakeh
1
Objectives
• To measure and analyze the viscosities of ideal (Toluene/p-Xylene) and nonideal (Methanol/Water) binary solutions and their components. • To determine the Activation Energy to viscous flow. • The effect of temperature change on the viscosity will be studied. Method: The viscosities of liquids are determined by measuring the flow time for various liquids in an Ostwald viscometer.
2
Ostwald viscometer
3
Viscosity
• The resistance of
a liquid to flow is called its
viscosity
• Viscosity is a property of liquids that is important in applications ranging from oil flow in engines to blood flow through arteries and veins. Measuring viscosity • How long a liquid takes to flow out of a pipette under the force of gravity. • How fast an object (steel ball) sinks through the liquid under gravitational force.
4
Molecular properties contributing to viscosityViscosity arises from the directed motion of molecules past each other, it is a measure of the ease with which molecules move past one another. It is affected by many factors such as: • Molecular size. • Molecular shape. • Intermolecular interactions (attractive force...

...Intrinsic Viscosity
Introduction
One of the most precise measurements in polymer science is also the simplest and cheapest. Intrinsic viscosity, which is measured from the flow time of a solution through a simple glass capillary, has considerable historical importance for establishing the very existence of polymer molecules. It also provides considerable physical insight. In this lab, each group will study the intrinsic viscosity of hydroxypropylcellulose, a common polymer derived from cellulose--hopefully at a different temperature.
Viscosity in general
For a discussion of viscosity, refer to the "HowTo" document on using the Wells-Brookfield cone and plate viscometer. The viscosity measured in a capillary viscometer is not obtained at a defined shear rate. Of several fixes to this problem, the simplest is simply to ignore it. This amounts to assuming that the fluid is Newtonian over the entire range of shear rates encountered by the fluid as it passes down the capillary.
The Ubbelohde capillary viscometer
The most useful kind of viscometer for determining intrinsic viscosity is the "suspended level" or Ubbelohde viscometer, sketched below:
The viscometer is called "suspended level" because the liquid initially drawn into the small upper bulb is not connected to the reservoir as it flows down the capillary during...

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