In Bosnia-Herzegovina, their was a conflict between three main ethnic groups. They were the Serbs, the Croats, and the Muslims. The conflict resulted in genocide committed by the Serbs against the Muslims in Bosnia. Bosnia is one of the countries that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia became a multicultural country after WW1. Yugoslavia was defeated by the Western Allies.
During WW2, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and was divided. Tito was a communist. He was a strong leader who maintained ties with the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. After Tito died in 1980 and without his strong leadership, Yugoslavia plunged into political and economic chaos.
A new leader arose by the late 1980s, a Serbian named Slobodan Milosevic. Slobodan was a former Communist who had turned to nationalism and religious hatred to gain power. He inflamed tensions between the Serbs and the Muslims in the independent provence of Kosovo. Christian Serbs claimed they were being mistreated by the Albanian Muslim majority. The Christian Serbs were in the minority.
On November 1, 1995, leaders of the warring factions including Milosevic traveled to the U.S for peace talks at Wright-Patterson Air Force base in Ohio. A peace accord was declared after three weeks. Terms of the agreement included dividing Bosnia into two main portions known as the Bosnian Serb Republic and the Muslim-Croat Federation. The agreement also stipulated that war criminals would be handed over for prosecution. 60,000 NATO soldiers were deployed to preserve the cease-fire.
Over 200,000 Muslim civilians had been murdered. More than 20,000 Muslim civilians were missing. 2,000,000 Muslim civilians became refugees. It was known as "the greatest failure of the West since the 1930s."