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Vietnamese History and Culture

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Vietnamese History and Culture

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1. What are the main characteristics of Vietnamese History & Culture? - Firstly, Vietnam has a long history filled with a lot of wars, especially resistant wars against foreign invaders. During the Van Lang – Au Lac civilization, Chao To conquered Au Lac in 179BC and then established Nan Yue Kingdom until 111BC when Han Dynasty replaced, starting 10 centuries of Chinese domination. During this period, there were a lot of Vietnamese people’s uprisings against Chinese ruler such as uprising 2 sister Trung, Ms Trieu, Phung Hung, Ly Bi, Trieu Quang Phuc, … Finally, in 938AD, Ngo Quyen defeated Southern Han troops on Bach Dang River, beginning an independent era of our country. After that, there was a civil war between 12 warlords until Dinh Bo Linh unified the country. In the Earlier Le Dynasty, Le Hoan defeated Sung troops from China. After that, our army won against 0.5 million Mongolian – Yuan troops when they attacked our country 3 times during Tran Dynasty. Later, Le Loi swept out Ming troops, established Later Le Dynasty in 1427-1428. However, in the next period, Vienam faced a national division into Northern Court, ruled by the Mac and Southern Court, ruled by the Le. When Mac collapsed in 1592, civil wars and peasant wars took place, the most significant one is Trinh – Nguyen War, which finally ended in the 18th century when 3 Tay Son brothers stood up. In 1788 – 1789, Nguyen Hue defeated 290,000 Tsing troops, only 5,000 survived, starting Tay Son Dynasty. In 1858, Vietnam was attacked by French colonials. While fighting against the French, our army also had to face 200,000 Tuong Gioi Thach troops from China. From 1846 to 1954, there was Indochina War which was a resistant war against French imperialism. Soon after we defeated the French, we immediately faced The Vietnam War – which was a resistant war against American for nation salvation. The final general offensive and uprising 1975 totally defeated the Neo-colonialism and unified our country. After...
1. What are the main characteristics of Vietnamese History & Culture?
- Firstly, Vietnam has a long history filled with a lot of wars, especially resistant wars against foreign invaders. During
the Van Lang Au Lac civilization, Chao To conquered Au Lac in 179BC and then established Nan Yue Kingdom until
111BC when Han Dynasty replaced, starting 10 centuries of Chinese domination. During this period, there were a lot of
Vietnamese people’s uprisings against Chinese ruler such as uprising 2 sister Trung, Ms Trieu, Phung Hung, Ly Bi, Trieu
Quang Phuc, Finally, in 938AD, Ngo Quyen defeated Southern Han troops on Bach Dang River, beginning an
independent era of our country. After that, there was a civil war between 12 warlords until Dinh Bo Linh unified the
country. In the Earlier Le Dynasty, Le Hoan defeated Sung troops from China. After that, our army won against 0.5
million Mongolian Yuan troops when they attacked our country 3 times during Tran Dynasty. Later, Le Loi swept out
Ming troops, established Later Le Dynasty in 1427-1428. However, in the next period, Vienam faced a national division
into Northern Court, ruled by the Mac and Southern Court, ruled by the Le. When Mac collapsed in 1592, civil wars and
peasant wars took place, the most significant one is Trinh Nguyen War, which finally ended in the 18th century when 3
Tay Son brothers stood up. In 1788 – 1789, Nguyen Hue defeated 290,000 Tsing troops, only 5,000 survived, starting Tay
Son Dynasty. In 1858, Vietnam was attacked by French colonials. While fighting against the French, our army also had
to face 200,000 Tuong Gioi Thach troops from China. From 1846 to 1954, there was Indochina War which was a
resistant war against French imperialism. Soon after we defeated the French, we immediately faced The Vietnam War
which was a resistant war against American for nation salvation. The final general offensive and uprising 1975 totally
defeated the Neo-colonialism and unified our country. After seizing independence, Vietnam armies faced Southwest
Border War and fought against 600,000 Chinese troops in 1979. Up until now, we still have to fight over sea territory
against China.
- Secondly, Vietnam has special culture which has acculturation, or, cultural exchanges. The most important exchanges
are Sinicization and DeSinicization - the process whereby non-Han Chinese societies come under the influences of
dominant Han Chinese state and society and conversely, the elimination of Chinese influences. Sinicization includes
normal exchanges and compulsory exchanges which were the result of Chinese assimilation during 1000 years of
Chinese domination. However, Vietnam also went Desinicized, which means choosing the bets to improve. For example,
Vietnamese people did not completely use Han scripts but changing to Nom scripts, which was based on Chinese but
included newly invented characters meant to represent native Vietnamese words... Moreover, we even pronounced in Han
Vietnamese. Another acculturation is Westernization and Dewesternization, which started from the 16th century until
now. Like Sinicization, Westernization also had normal and compulsory exchanges, including the adoption of the Latin
alphabet and the spread of Catholicism and Protestantism which soon became a new religion in Vietnam. Meanwhile,
Dewesternization was shown through the process of how Vietnamese people build the structure of university and
education system. We learnt to apply Western technology. Art and music was also affected. Some foreign words that we
borrowed from Western languages were Vietnamized in pronunciation. Marxism was approved and adapted through Ho
Chi Minh ideology. Currently, Vietnam is in the process of Dewesternization to build up modern Vietnamese culture with
Vietnamese identity. On the other hand, Vietnamese culture also acquired Hinduisation, for example, My Son Holy Land
in the central Vietnam.
- Thirdly, Vietnamese history & culture has 2 cycles of civilization. The 1st one is Red River civilization, or Van Lang
Au Lac civilization, a civilization is full of cultural achievements. Van Lang and Au Lac were the 2 first states of
Vietnamese people. The reunion of tribes showed that we already had enough differentiations of classes and enough
strength to control and build up cannel along the Red River. If there had been no Van Lang Au Lac civilization, there
would be no Vietnam today. This civilization formed and built up the fundamental foundation of Vietnamese identity of
Vietnamese culture. After it collapsed, the country experienced 10 centuries of Chinese domination. However, with the
winning of Ngo Quyen in 938 against Southern Han on Bach Dang River, the 2nd era of Vietnamese civilization started as
Great Viet/ Dai Viet civilization during Ly Tran Later Le Dynasty. This civilization created a lot of new things.
Without Dai Viet civilization, there would be no Vietnam today too. Its collapse in the 16th century resulted in division,
civil wars and peasant wars. After that, Vietnam was put under colonization, bringing about the impoverishing living
standard. After the Doi Moi Policy in 1986, Vietnamese people hope to return to civilization with the new establishment
of Vietnamese Socialist.
- Finally, another main characteristic is that Vietnamese history & culture has special development of socio-economic
formation. For instant, compared with European world which went through primitive communist, slave-owning mode of
production, federalism and capitalism, Vietnamese world also started with primitive communist, but then continued with
Asiatic mode of production, federalism and then semi-feudal colonial society along with colonial capitalism. European
culture had seeds of new society in old society, while remains of old society still existed in new society, but they only
lasted for a short time then stopped completely. Meanwhile, Vietnamese socio-economic formation did not stop at any
particular time. All mode of productions continuously existed throughout the history of the country up until 1945. For
example, primitive society was still on some mountainous areas. There were no landlords, just rich and poor people. In
other words, Vietnamese world experienced multi-mode of production.