Victims and Crime Evaluation
All over the world, people are pronged to become victims of an offense against themselves or their property violating them. Most of the time people decided not to report the offense to a police officer for many reasons fear of their lives, embarrassment, loved one hurt him or her, and are not citizens. While not reporting the offense to the police department it only creates more numbers for the National Crime Victimization Survey department to report instead of the Uniform Crime Report that the police department provide at the end of every year. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 stated that the word victim “means any individual against whom an offense has been committed” and the best term to use for a victim in the criminal system is “crime victim” (Schmalleger, Hall, & Dolatowski, p548 2010). Means any one can become a victim at any place, time, and needs to be educated on the victim’s assistance programs and victim’s right when an offense occurs to them. Concept of a “Victim”
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) it portraits that male, the poor, racial minorities, and young adults are most likely to be victimized that of others. A victim is “any individual against whom an offense has been committed or for certain procedural purposes, a parent, or legal guardian if a victim is below the age of eighteen years or incompetent , and one or more family members or relatives designated by the court if the victim is deceased or incapacitated” (Schmalleger, Hall, & Dolatowski, p 548 2010). In every state the definition of victim may be different based on their model penal code. Alaska for example states a victim to be someone who an offense has been perpetrated, a minor, the family of the minor, the person who is incapacitated, and any other interested person as may be designed by a person 3
having authority in law to do so.
History of the Victim
Throughout early history, humans who became victims of an offense had few if any official support mechanism. In ancient times (AD400) the victims were able to take the law into their own hands and find the perpetrator to punish them for their offenses. This can be described as the Golden Age of the Victim because they victim lent a sense of closure to the victimization experience and had the effect of making the victim or victims feel “whole again” (Schmalleger, Hall, & Dolatowski, p 549 2010.) The golden age finished because some of the victims were not able to find the perpetrator and punish them for their offense. Eventually crimes became and offense against society and the needs of the victim were largely forgotten. (Schmalleger, Hall, & Dolatowski, p 548 2010.)
Eventually in the middle ages (400-1960’s AD) England emerged the concept of “King Peace” under which all offenses were seen as violations of laws decreed by the monarch. The victims where no longer made felt whole and instead they where only used for the sole purpose of testifying against the perpetrator and provide evidence. Once the victim had provided the evidence, the local officials, sheriffs and constables would decide in the sentence of the perpetrator based on the offense committed. During this era, society’s moral responsibility toward making the victim or victims “whole again” was largely forgotten (Schmalleger, Hall, & Dolatowski, p 548 2010.)
The “King Peace” was used right up to 1960’s when the Modern Times once again took interest in making the victim whole again and not used them as a mere token role to target criminal activity. From 1963 to the present Criminal Compensation Act was adopted all over the 4
world and put into practice. California passed the first American Legislation intended to assist victims of crime. There after New York also created “good Samaritan” statue designed to protect the victims and many states after decided to join the victim compensation bandwagon. In the compensation...