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Performing Arts Administration and Management in Vietnam - A Comparative Study Huong T.K. Le Abstract
In accordance with internationalisation in education in Australia, this paper investigates how applicable Australian training courses might be in meeting demands of other countries in the Asia Pacific region. Stemming from the fact that Vietnam had not developed any training course in arts and culture management, and also to examine performing arts administration and management in the current environment in Vietnam, a comparative study between Hanoi, Vietnam and Sydney, Australia was carried out to explore which management methods were utilised in performing arts organisations, and the need for training arts leaders in Vietnam. The suitability of pertinent training packages and tertiary arts management courses from Australia perspective are examined to determine whether then could be adapted to arts administration training in Vietnam. Case study approaches were employed, using judgmental sampling with some cases in Hanoi, and in Sydney. Some arts administrators involved with managing music-oriented organisations were interviewed utilising a life history approach. In addition, relevant documents and regulations in the arts field were analysed to lay a foundation for comprehending the operation and management of performing arts organisations in Vietnam. It is expected that this research will propose some pertinent arts management training courses in Australia to contribute to the area of arts management and the development of the entertainment industry in Vietnam, as well as obtain mutual benefits for both Vietnamese and Australian education.

Introduction: the Development of Arts Training
This paper sets out to investigate performing arts administration and management, and the training for performing arts leaders in the current environment in Vietnam through presenting a case study of the Vietnam National Symphony Orchestra and the potential implications for the Australian training system. There has been a rapid change both locally and globally in arts and entertainment today (Deakin University, 1996) including changes in culture, economy and society that have significantly influenced arts organisations and artistic activities. Two important changes are cultural policy in general and a decline of financial support from governments in particular (Casey, Selwood, & Policy Studies Institute., 1997; O'Hagan, 1998; Pick, 1986; Radbourne & Fraser, 1996; Rentschler, 1999, 2002; Soutar, Close, Australia Council., Donovan Research., & BIZTRAC (Firm), 1997). Moreover, an increasingly competitive environment where there are various types of entertainment, has become a serious challenge for the development of arts organisations. Not surprisingly, crises in the arts have happened in many countries in Europe, the United States, Australia, and Asian countries (Mulcahy, 2001; O'Hagan, 1998; Reiss, 1974). It is not unusual to hear of recent events such as: the near ending of funding for National Endowment for the Arts in Washington DC; the closing of the Schiller Theatre in Berlin, cutbacks in funding for the arts in Britain; and the sale of parts of the collection by the major arts museums in New York (O'Hagan, 1998)

Huong Le is currently studying in the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) [Education] at the University of Sydney, Australia. She earned a Diploma of Educational Studies at the University of Sydney in 2001 and a Bachelor of Music in Musicology from the Hanoi National Conservatory of Music, Vietnam in 1996. She was a lecturer at the Hanoi National Conservatory of Music, Vietnam. This paper is based on her PhD research at the University of Sydney. Readers may contact her at h.le@edfac.usyd.edu.au

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Australia can also serve as an example, as government at both Federal and State levels recently have adopted a stance that “the arts industry must become more business-focussed in order to survive and thrive” (Soutar et...
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