My course paper is called the gerund. I have chosen this subject, because I want to know more about the gerund. There are several reasons for it: 1)1 want know more about the gerund, because it will help me in my future studying, will help me not to produce errors ; 2) Since most languages ( e.g.: Spanish, Russian, French) have infinitives, but no gerunds; 3) This will help me to increase my outlook. I think the use of the gerunds in English is problem, because use infinitive is easier, and How I wrote above the gerund is no in the Russian language. This is one of the reasons why students do mistakes. The gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:
a)The gerund executes the functions of a subject in the sentences, but translated as a noun. b) The gerund executes the functions of a part of compound verbal predicate, but translated as infinitive. c) The gerund executes the functions of an attribute, but translated as verbal adverb. d) The gerund executes the functions of an object, but translated as a subordinate clause. It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly rendered by a clause. Also there are the row of verbs and adjectives with prepositions, after which are used the gerund. For example after such verbs as to avoid, to dislike, to enjoy, to finish, to mind, to forgive, can't help and some other$ we use only the gerund, but after verbs to like, to begin, to start, to continue, to try and some others we can use the gerund or infinitive. I am going to describe all this nuances in this course paper. In the same way, I want to compare the gerund with infinitive, because I often meet difficulties in this sphere. The infinitive and the gerund sometimes have similar functions in the sentences and it is therefore necessary to define the spheres of their application. The distinction between the two verbals partly lies in their different tense and aspect characteristics. I think it is necessary to compare the two verbals, for preventing possible mistakes in this cases where they do overlap. As for me it is easier to use the infinitive than the gerund in the every day's speech. But the gerund, I think, makes our speech more completely. I am interested in the differences between the gerund and infinitive. And I will try to examine all the aspects, the problems and the functions of the gerund.
Chapter 1. The Gerund as non- finite form of the verb.
The Gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at same time its nominal characters. The Gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing. The gerund is non- finite form of verb, as called "verbs". Verbs are the form of the verb intermediary in many of their lexico- grammatical features between the verb and noun-processual part of speech. The mixed features of these forms are revealed in the principal spheres of the part-of- speech characterization, i.e. in their meaning, structural marking, combinability, and syntactic function. The processual meaning is exposed by them in a substantive or adjectival- adverbial interpretation: they render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties. They are formed by special morphemic elements which do not express either grammatical time or mood. They can be combined with verbs like non- processual lexemes (performing non- verbal function in the sentence), and they can be combined with non- processual lexemes like verbs (performing verbal function in the sentence). The verbs are part of the system of the verb,whether they do not constitute within this system a special subsystem of purely lexemic nature. This counter- approach, though, would evidently be devoid of any substantiality, since a subclass of a lexemic class, by definition, should share the essential categorical structure, as well as primary syntactic functions with other...