Roller Coaster Velocity Report for 8th Grade Science
The performance of our roller coaster, The Gunslinger, was based on the ability to provide an example of Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states; an object in motion stays in motion while an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Our design shows that The Gunslinger achieves potential and kinetic energy through gravity and friction caused from the momentum that the acceleration provides.
First we start off with acceleration, which is the increase of speed or velocity. In our roller coaster acceleration happens as you move down the slope, through the loop, and around the curve. Negative acceleration happens as you move up the loop, before the hill and right before the exit path. In order for negative acceleration to happen we need friction. Friction is the rubbing of one object or surface against another. Friction is what makes the object slow down as it moves up the loop and up the hill. Gravity is the natural force or attraction between any two massive bodies. Gravity is what pulls the object down the slope at the beginning of the roller coaster.
Our design of the roller coaster also shows that it is able to accomplish potential and kinetic energy as momentum occurs all through out. Momentum is a measure of the motion of a body equal to the product of its mass and velocity. Therefore, momentum occurs as the object moves down the slope in the beginning, right before the curve, after the curve before the hill and right after the hill before the exit path. In other words, all through out the roller coaster. Potential energy is the energy of a particle or system of particles derived from position, or condition, rather than motion. In our design potential energy occurs at the top of the loop, on the way down and at the top of hill right before the exit path. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body because of its motion. As soon as the roller coaster...
...Laboratory – Terminal Velocity
Introduction:
Consider dropping a piece paper and a brick from the same height. Although in theory they should both strike the ground at the same time; in practice the brick will always strike the ground first. The reason is because of air resistance. As the paper falls to the ground air resistance is pushing the paper up, this slows the acceleration of the paper.
It is known that as the velocity of an object increases the air resistance acting on the object increases. If we consider jumping out of a plane and free fall towards the Earth the F.B.D. would be as follows:
Now the force of gravity acting on the object does not change, however as we speed up towards the Earth the force of air resistance is increasing. Eventually there reaches a point when the Fg = Fair when this occurs we are no longer accelerating towards the Earth, but fall with a constant velocity that is called the TERMINAL VELOCITY.
The terminal velocity of an object in free fall depends on two main factors:
1. The mass of the object
2. The surface area exposed to the air resistance
For example: A human free falling towards Earth has a terminal velocity of 190 km/h. If you use a parachute the terminal velocity is about 20 km/h.
If we were to observe this motion on a speed time graph it would be as follows:...
...E102MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
GUIDE QUESTIONS:
1. From the data obtained, what is the effect of the height of the track to the cart’s acceleration?
The data shows that sinӨ, which is dependent on the height, is getting higher as acceleration is increasing. This implicates that when object is at higher altitude, its acceleration is faster.
2. From the data obtained, how is time, t related to the inclination of the track? Explain why?
Time and position of velocity are interrelated to each other and the height and gravitational pull affects the acceleration of a moving and a free falling object.
3. From the data obtained, how would you account the difference between the picket fence’s acceleration and the value of g?
The value of the slope of a graph of average velocity versus time will be the acceleration due to gravity of the falling object.
E102MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
PROBLEM:
1. A police car is searching for a fugitive that managed to escape a while ago. Knowing that he is now safe, the fugitive begins to take a rest until he notices a police car approaching him at 10 m/s, accelerating at 5 m/s2 and it is 100 m away. The fugitive grabs a motorcycle and stars it accelerating at the same rate as the police car. How much time will it take the police car to catch the fugitive?
x = xo + vot + 1at2
2
xpolice = 0m +10m/s (t) + 0.5(5m/s2)t2
xfugitive...
...limitations of manures. Write any one function of the following: [3] (a) Lysosome (b) Golgi apparatus (c) Endoplasmic Reticulum (a) What is mixed cropping? (b) Write any two advantages of mixed cropping.
11.
12.
13.
14.
[3]
15. The velocity time graph of a ball of mass 20 g moving along a straight line on a level ground is given below. How much force does the ground exert on the ball to bring it to rest? [3]
16.
(a) A car accelerates uniformly from 18 kmh1 to 36 kmh1 in 5s. Calculate: (i) acceleration (ii) distance covered by the car in that time. [3] (b) The length of minute hand of a clock is 14 cm. calculate the speed with which the tip of the minute hand moves. [2] [1]
17. (a) Define the term inertia. Name the quantity that measures it. (b) Which physical quantity corresponds to rate of change of momentum?
18. (a) Two objects of masses M1 and M2 are dropped in vacuum from a height above the surface of Earth (M1 is greater than M2). Which one will reach the ground first and why? [1] (b) The earth attracts the moon. Does the moon attract the earth? If it does, why does the earth not move towards the moon? [2] 19. A ball thrown up vertically returns to the the thrower after 6s. Find: (a) The velocity with which it was thrown up. (b) The maximum height it reaches. (c) Its position after 4s. (Given g= 9.8 m/s2) [3]
20(a) How can a saturated solution be made unsaturated? (b) Give any four application of...
...
Lab #3: Initial Velocity of a Projectile 


Abhishek Samdaria 
Pd.4 and 5 

Lab #3: Initial Velocity of a Projectile
Theory:
How can we determine the initial velocity of a projectile?
Experimental Design:
The purpose behind this experiment was to determine the initial velocity of a projectile. Projection motion consists of kinematics of motion in the x and y directions. With two dimension kinematics, there are the x and y components in any given velocity. In projectile motion, the x component has no acceleration as no outside forces are acting on it. The Y component on the other hand has gravity acting as a force.
A small ball is shot, at three various angles (30,45,60), and through the known values the initial velocity of the ball is found. As a result, the range of the project can be represented with the equation
1) R = V02g*Sin2θ , where R represents the range or Dx; the values of g and θ are known.
However, in this experiment, one main equation were used to determine the initial velocity.
1) yy0=tanθxgx22(V0cosθ)2 , where y is the trajectory of a particle in two dimensional motion, gravity is 9.81 m/s 2 , and θ is the launch angle. X is equal to the average distance launched in the x direction.
In order to determine all the components required to use the trajectory equation, a small projectile ball was launched at 3...
...mass 1.0 g. The muzzle velocity of the bullet is 150 m/s. Find the recoil speed of the gun.
Momentum conservation equation:
Recoil speed =________________
2. If the girl in the previous question holds the gun tightly against her body, the recoil speed is less. Calculate the new recoil speed for the 48 kg girl.
Momentum conservation equation:
Recoil speed  _______________
3. In a freight yard a train is being put together from freight cars. An empty freight car, coasting at 10 m/s, strikes a loaded car that is stationary, and the cars couple together. Each of the cars has a mass of 3000 kg when empty, and the loaded car contains 12,000 kg of canned soda (a year's supply for the Physics class). Find the speed of the two coupled railcars.
Momentum conservation equation:
Speed = ___________________
4. An astronaut of mass 80. kg carries an empty oxygen tank of mass 10. kg. He throws the tank away from himself with a speed of 2.0 m/s. Find the speed with which he moves off into space.
Momentum conservation equation:
Speed = ___________________
5. A tennis player returns a 30. m/s serve straight back at 25. m/s, after making contact with the ball for 0.50 s. If the ball has a mass of 0.20 kg, what is the force she exerted on the ball?
Equation:
Force = ____________________
6. A 50. kg cart is moving across a frictionless floor at 2.0 m/s. A 70. kg boy, riding in the cart, jumps off so that he hits the floor with zero...
...C) D) E) −1 +1 zero 3 ˆ i
( ) ( )
Phys101 Term: 111
Final Tuesday, January 10, 2012
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Q18. An object is moving along a straight line in the positive x direction. Figure 11 shows its position from the starting point as a function of time. Various segments of the graph are identified by the roman numerals I, II, III, and IV. Which segment(s) of the graph represent(s) a constant velocity of +1.0 m/s? Fig#
A) B) C) D) E)
IV II III I I and III
Phys101 Term: 111
Final Tuesday, January 10, 2012
Code: 1 Page: 14
Q19. A rock is thrown horizontally at a speed of 20 m/s from the edge of a cliff of height H. The rock strikes the ground 35 m from the foot of the cliff as shown in Figure 12. What is the height H of cliff edge? Neglect air resistance. Fig#
Answer:
35 20t ⇒ t= 3.5 / 2; = 1 2 −H = gt= 4.9(1.75) 2 15 m = 2
15 m 11 m 21 m 17 m 19 m
A) B) C) D) E)
Phys101 Term: 111
Final Tuesday, January 10, 2012
Code: 1 Page: 15
Q20. Figure 13 shows a particle P moving in a horizontal circle with uniform angular velocity about the origin of an xy coordinate system. At what values of θ, the ycomponent of the particle acceleration ay have maximum magnitude. (θ is measured counter clockwise from the positive xaxis)
A)
B) C) D) E)
90° and 270° 0° and 90° 90° and 180° 0° and 180° 0° and 270°
Q21. Figure 14 shows four blocks connected with three cords, being pulled to the right on a...
...acceleration and once the air resistance is stronger then the terminal velocity that is when the object is going at a small velocity.
Terminal Velocity
When there is equal force acting on an object when falling such as gravity and air resistance at that stage it is called constant speed or terminal velocity. When the object is dropped the force of gravity initially is 100% but as it falls the air resistance becomes stronger making the gravity weaker and at one stage there will be terminal velocity. In some cases due to the mass and weight of an object and the height they fall the terminal velocity may be quicker or slower.
The Ant and The Man
When the man falls from the 10 story high building and splats to the ground this is because of his fall. When he falls due to the weight of him he falls quicker and gravity has a stronger force on him and air resistance doesn’t and in reality he may not even reach the terminal velocity or he may reach it near to the ground and hence he is accelerating at a high rate off the building making him splat on the floor.
However when the ant falls from the table which in comparison to the ants height an 100 story building when the ant falls he survives on the floor. This is also linked with the timing of the terminal velocity. As the ant falls gravity is 100% at the start but as it is small in size air...
...the forces that cause the motion. There are four activities done in this experiment. Graphical analysis of human motion, where displacement vs time and velocity vs. time were graphed. Graphical analysis of motion where in the 10th seconds the total displacement is 18.75m, average velocity is 1.88m/s and instantaneous velocity is 3.76m/s. Reaction time where one of the normal reaction time among the group is 0.16s and the reaction time while someone is distracting the member is 0.30s, and lastly graph matching.
Introduction:
As a living organism, all of us have the potential to move, change in position, or go to different places. In short, life is in constant motion. From the prehistoric chase of antelopes across the savanna to the pursuit of satellites in space, mastery of motion has been critical to our survival and success as a species. The study of motion and of physical concepts such as force and mass is called Dynamics. Kinematics is one of the topics under dynamics. Kinematics describes motion without regard to its causes. In this experiment, kinematics focuses in one dimension: a motion along a straight line. This kind of motion, actually any kind of motion, involves velocity, displacement, and acceleration with regards to time. The objectives of the experiment are to draw the displacement versus time graphs and velocity versus time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion,...
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