Impulsive Force Model Worksheet 2: Quantitative Conservation of Momentum

Name: ______________________________________

1. Kim holds a 2.0 kg air rifle loosely and fires a bullet of mass 1.0 g. The muzzle velocity of the bullet is 150 m/s. Find the recoil speed of the gun. Momentum conservation equation:

Recoil speed =________________

2. If the girl in the previous question holds the gun tightly against her body, the recoil speed is less. Calculate the new recoil speed for the 48 kg girl. Momentum conservation equation:

Recoil speed - _______________

3. In a freight yard a train is being put together from freight cars. An empty freight car, coasting at 10 m/s, strikes a loaded car that is stationary, and the cars couple together. Each of the cars has a mass of 3000 kg when empty, and the loaded car contains 12,000 kg of canned soda (a year's supply for the Physics class). Find the speed of the two coupled railcars. Momentum conservation equation:

Speed = ___________________

4. An astronaut of mass 80. kg carries an empty oxygen tank of mass 10. kg. He throws the tank away from himself with a speed of 2.0 m/s. Find the speed with which he moves off into space. Momentum conservation equation:

Speed = ___________________

5. A tennis player returns a 30. m/s serve straight back at 25. m/s, after making contact with the ball for 0.50 s. If the ball has a mass of 0.20 kg, what is the force she exerted on the ball? Equation:

Force = ____________________

6. A 50. kg cart is moving across a frictionless floor at 2.0 m/s. A 70. kg boy, riding in the cart, jumps off so that he hits the floor with zero velocity.

Momentum conservation equation:

a. How large an impulse did the boy give to the cart? ____________

b. What was the velocity of the cart after the boy jumped? ________________ 7. Two girls with masses of 50.0 kg and 70.0 kg are at rest on frictionless in-line skates. The larger girl pushes the smaller girl so that the...

...Laboratory V: Conservation of Momentum
Problem #1: Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
John Greavu
April 17, 2013
Physics 1301W, Professor: Evan Frodermann, TA: Mark Pepin
Abstract
A cart was given an initial velocity toward another stationary cart down a track. The initial velocity of the first cart as well as the masses of both carts was varied throughout multiple trials. Velcro placed on the ends of the carts caused the cars to stick together after colliding. Videos of the collision and the seconds just before and after were taken. Data was then uploaded and plotted in MotionLab were it was used to create construct velocity vs. time graphs for each trial. After analyzing the data and the subsequent graphs the final velocityequation for two objects (each of known mass) that have collided directly head-on in a perfectly inelastic collision was determined as a function of the initial velocities and masses of the two objects.
Introduction
“You work for NASA with a group designing a docking mechanism that would allow two space shuttles to connect with each other. The mechanism is designed for one shuttle to move carefully into position and dock with a stationary shuttle. Since the shuttles may be carrying different payloads and different amounts of fuel, their masses may not be identical: the shuttles could be equally massive, the moving shuttle could be more...

...Collision and Conservation of Momentum
Collision, a normal phenomenon in our daily life, also is familiar by people in physics field. As we can imagine, there are many interesting among collision cause our attention to think about what is this exactly about and how does is work or maybe why is that such as there maybe some neutron stars intensely hurtling in outer space or two small eggs hitting each other. Outer space is filled with infinite particles that maybe as small as things people cant find out or measure so far and collisions are mostly about those small particles moving and hitting. For example, light wouldn’t be so bright according to its mass and the reason that it delivers light is because collision -- namely fraction – to produce photon and then integrate light. A collision is an isolated event in which two o more moving bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Even though, many people would refer collision to accidents where there are object badly crashed, what my topic will be focused on are those phenomenon among physics world. Moreover, when scientists use the word of “collision”, they try to imply nothing about the magnitude of the forces. Collision was ever a hot topic drawing many physicists’ attention. After plenty of delving, physicists establish the momentumconservation law. Collision is a typical characteristic in microcosm in physics. Fortunately, collision can be...

...Solving Momentum Problems
Momentum:
For lack of a better definition, momentum is a measure of the “oomph” that an object has due to its
motion. The more mass an object has and the more speed it has the more momentum it has. The
formula for momentum is simply:
p=mv
Where p is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity
Note that momentum is a vector quantity, so it is possible to have negative momentum. Any object that
is moving in the direction opposite that defined as positive will have a negative momentum. You can
also break a momentum vector into components or resolve momentum vectors into a single resultant.
Momentum is a conserved quantity. The momentum of a system will not change unless an outside
impulse is applied to it. If the system remains isolated, its total momentum will not change. That does
not mean that individual parts of a system cannot interact with each other and exchange momentums.
Conservation of Momentum is a basic physics principle that allows us to solve many interesting
problems.
The unit of momentum is a kg•m/s
Impulse:
The only way to change momentum is through impulse. Impulse is an outside force applied for a
specific time. Obviously the harder you push...

...has momentum. Momentum is equal to the objects mass times its velocity. Momentum is conserved, which means that “momentum before an event equals momentum immediately after, or pi=pf”. Since pi=pf, then pai+ pbi = paf+ pbf and (ma* vai)+ (mb* vbi)= (ma* vaf) + (mb * vbf). Having velocity simply means that an object has a speed and direction. Using the formula “(ma * vai) + (mb * vbi) = (ma* vaf) + (mb * vbf,)” the final velocity of two carts after they collide can be found. The first cart is 1.5 kg traveling at 0.7 m/s and the cart that it collides with is 1 kg and at rest, so (1.5 kg * 0.7 m/s) +(1 kg * 0)= (1.5 kg * vf) + (1 * vf). 1.05=2.5 (vf) so the final velocity is 2.38 m/s. This collision would look like:
1.5 kg, 0.7 m/s 1 kg, 0m/s m1+m2=1.5 kg, vf=2.38 m/s
Experimental Design
The purpose of this lab is to determine the mathematical equation relating the total system momentum of 2 carts before a collision (Pi) to the total system momentum of the 2 carts after the collision (Pf.). Some constants may be: the weight of the bars, the carts, the point at which the carts may start, the measurements being used, etc. After conducting 6 trails with the moving car being a different mass each time, the total system...

...Lab 5
Conservation of Momentum and Energy
Abstract
The physics laws governing conservation of momentum and mechanical energy were investigated by performing multiple experiments with differing conditions. Conservation laws state energy is to be conserved in systems with no net external forces. Two trials consisted of inelastic collisions and two trials consisted of elastic conditions. Photogate software helped decipher initial and final velocities in order to perform calculations applied to conservation law equations. In both cases of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy, low relative changes in total energy (less than 0.003) were observed indicating general conservation of energy. Percent discrepancies comparing the theoretical to experimental values allowed for more insight on what was truly going on. Conservation of momentum was seen in Trial 1 (5.56%), Trial (1.69%) and Trial 4 (6.89%) all showing low percent discrepancies from the theoretical outcome. Trial 2, having a percent discrepancy of 52.0%, showed error in the experiment possibly due to friction, the photogate software, or other inconclusive factors. Conservation of mechanical energy was demonstrated in cases of elastic collision since low percent discrepancies of...

...CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM PRACTICAL WRITE UP
AIM: To investigate if momentum is conserved in two-dimensional interactions within an isolated system.
HYPOTHESIS: Without the effects of friction the momentum will be conserved in the isolated system. In all three experiments the momentum before the interaction will equal the momentum after the interaction.
METHOD: An air hockey table was set up and a video camera on a tripod was placed over the air hockey table. The camera was positioned so it was directly above the air hockey table facing downwards. The air hockey table was turned on and two near identical pucks were placed on the table, one at one end of the table and one in the centre. The puck at the end of the table was launched by hand towards the other puck which was stationary. On impact the first puck continued in motion and initiated the motion of the second puck. The collision was filmed on the video camera. After this a second experiment was set up with the same two pucks, but this time they were placed in either corner of the air hockey table. They were launched at the same time into the centre of the table, where they collided and bounced off each other and this collision was also filmed. In the final experiment the two pucks were replaced with larger pucks with Velcro around the edges. Like the previous experiment the two pucks were placed in two of the corners of the table...

...What is momentum?
Momentum of a body is defined as the mass multiplied by the velocity of this object.
Momentum= m x v
Momentum and Newton’s second law of motion:
The resultant force is proportional to the change in momentum per a second.
We know that force = mass x acceleration. So F (mv-mu)/t
F m (v-u)/t = ma so F=kma
Momentum is a vector quantity:Momentum has a direction as well as a magnitude
Momentum and Newton’s first law of motion:
An object remains at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force.
If an object had a constant momentum, it will have a constant amount of force needed to that will mean that no resultant force acting on it. So it will have a constant velocity unless the mass changes.
Momentum key points
Unit of momentum:
Kgms-1
Symbol of momentum:
P
But what is momentum as a physical quantity?
Momentum is the measure of how much force is needed to stop the moving object or change its velocity (speed or direction)
Momentum is found in lots of examples from our everyday lives. To understand what momentum is we look at two colliding objects. Each object is moving with a certain velocity and has a certain mass. To stop...

...Abstract:
In this experiment, two object collided both elastically and in inelastically, the purpose of this experiment is to study the principle of conservation of momentum in collisions using two bodies. We also calculated the amount of kinetic energy in elastic and inelastic collisions before and after the collision.
Introduction:
When bodies collide with each other, the total momentum p = mv, is always conserved regardless of the type of collision provided no external forces are present. There are two types of collisions. In an elastic collision, both the kinetic energy and the momentum are conserved. An inelastic collision is one in which only the momentum is conserved. Most collisions observed in nature are inelastic. A collision is completely inelastic when the bodies stick together after a collision.
Materials and Methods:
For this experiment we used an air table that provided a frictionless motion of the pucks, Velcro tape for the inelastic collision, graph paper and a ruler. At first, we lunched the pucks without the Velcro tape to collide them elastically, and they drew on the graph paper their path before and after the collision. The same thing happened in the second part of the experiment, but this time with the Velcro tape.
Result:
The elastic collision:
VA VB
Before 2 X 10-2 m/s 2.5 X 10-2 m/s
After 1.44 X 10-2 m/s 1.26 X 10-2 m/s
The inelastic collision:
VA VB
Before 1.7...