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3. What is AI
This paper is about Artificial intelligence which is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears. AI is generally associated with Computer Science, but it has many important links with other fields such as Mathematics, Psychology, Cognition, Biology and Philosophy, among many others. Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields will ultimately benefit our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being.
“Artificial intelligence is that field of computer usage which attempts to construct computational mechanisms for activities that are considered to require intelligence when performed by humans” -DEREK PARTRIDGE
The most widely spread definition of AI is the so called Turing's test. Alan Turing was a British mathematician famous for the invention of the theoretical Turing machine and for the deciphering of the German codes during World War II. The Turing's test is quite simple. We place something behind a curtain and it speaks with us. If we can't make difference between it and a human being then it will be AI. However, this definition exists from more than fifty years, so we are going to create a newer and a more up-to-date one. Turing's definition suggests that, an Intellect is a person with knowledge gained through the years. If this is so, then what about a newly born baby? Is it an Intellect? Our answer will be "yes". Our definition of an intellect will be: a thing that knows nothing but it can learn.
What is AI?
What is AI? Artificial intelligence is (and some what circularly) defined. Is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts. Intelligent behavior in turn involves perception, reasoning, learning, communicating, and acting in complex environments. AI has one of its long term goals the development of machines that can do these things as well as human can, or possibly even better. Another goal of AI is to under stand this kind of behavior whether it occurs in machines or in humans or other animals. Thus, AI has both engineering and scientific goals. AI has surrounded by controversy. A question “Can machines think?” Some people think that to make a machine which can think complexly is impossible. For an example to creating weather phenomenon consisting of sun clouds rain and many more of its richness is impossible task. Similarly creating full-scale human intelligence is very much complex and impossible. The idea to built human level thinking machines is still undecided, and progress to it has been set up which is much more steady. To people machine is rather thing on remembering it, the only thing which comes to their mind is gears, clutches, clanking sounds, metal, steam and many more. Consider a for example a simple virus called E6 bacteriophage as shown in the diagram. [pic]
The virus attaches itself to the cell wall of the bacterium with its tail fibers, punches the wall and injects its DNA in to the bacterium. Then it is manufactured to thousands of copies which forms new virus and repeats the process. This complete assembly of nature looks like an automated machine injecting DNA why this should not be called an machine made up of cells and proteins.
What is an artificial neural network?
An artificial neural network is a system...
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