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BONUS ISSUE
An offer of free additional shares to existing shareholders. A company may decide to distribute further shares as an alternative to increasing the dividend payout. Also known as a "scrip issue" or "capitalization issue".

Issue of Bonus Share
A bonus share is a free share of stock given to current shareholders in a company, based upon the number of shares that the shareholder already owns. While the issue of bonus shares increases the total number of shares issued and owned, it does not increase the value of the company. Although the total number of issued shares increases, the ratio of number of shares held by each shareholder remains constant. An issue of bonus shares is referred to as a bonus issue. Depending upon the constitutional documents of the company, only certain classes of shares may be entitled to bonus issues, or may be entitled to bonus issues in preference to other classes. A bonus issue (or scrip issue) is a stock split in which a company issues new shares without charge in order to bring its issued capital in line with its employed capital (the increased capital available to the company after profits). This usually happens after a company has made profits, thus increasing its employed capital. Therefore, a bonus issue can be seen as an alternative to dividends. No new funds are raised with a bonus issue. Unlike a rights issue , a bonus issue does not risk diluting your investment. Although the earnings per share of the stock will drop in proportion to the new issue, this is compensated by the fact that you will own more shares. Therefore the value of your investment should remain the same although the price will adjust accordingly. The whole idea behind the issue of Bonus shares is to bring the Nominal Share Capital into line with the true excess of assets over liabilities. Bonus shares are issued by cashing in on the free reserves of the company. The assets of a company also consist of cash reserves. A company builds up its reserves by retaining part of its profit over the years (the part that is not paid out as dividend). After a while, these free reserves increase, and the company wanting to issue bonus shares converts part of the reserves into capital. What is the biggest benefit in issuing bonus shares is that its adds to the total number of shares in the market. Say a company had 10 million shares. Now, with a bonus issue of 2:1, there will be 20 million shares issues. So now, there will be 30 million shares. This is referred to as a dilution in equity. Now the earnings of the company will have to be divided by that many more shares. Since the profits remain the same but the number of shares has increased, the EPS (Earnings per Share = Net Profit/ Number of Shares) will decline. Theoretically, the stock price should also decrease proportionately to the number of new shares. But, in reality, it may not happen. A bonus issue is a signal that the company is in a position to service its larger equity. What it means is that the management would not have given these shares if it was not confident of being able to increase its profits and distribute dividends on all these shares in the future. A bonus issue is taken as a sign of the good health of the company. When a bonus issue is announced, the company also announces a record date for the issue. The record date is the date on which the bonus takes effect, and shareholders on that date are entitled to the bonus. After the announcement of the bonus but before the record date, the shares are referred to as cum-bonus. After the record date, when the bonus has been given effect, the shares become ex-bonus. Issue of bonus shares

Bonus shares are issued by converting the reserves of the company into share capital. It is nothing but capitalization of the reserves of the company. There are some conditions which need to be satisfied before issuing Bonus shares: 1) Bonus shares can be issued by a company only if the Articles of Association of the...
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