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This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION

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Vehicular Networking:
A Survey and Tutorial on Requirements,
Architectures, Challenges, Standards and Solutions
Georgios Karagiannis, Onur Altintas, Eylem Ekici, Geert Heijenk, Boangoat Jarupan, Kenneth Lin, and Timothy Weil

Abstract—Vehicular networking has significant potential to enable diverse applications associated with traffic safety, traffic efficiency and infotainment. In this survey and tutorial paper we introduce the basic characteristics of vehicular networks, provide an overview of applications and associated requirements, along with challenges and their proposed solutions. In addition, we provide an overview of the current and past major ITS programs and projects in the USA, Japan and Europe. Moreover, vehicular networking architectures and protocol suites employed in such programs and projects in USA, Japan and Europe are discussed. Index Terms—Vehicular networking, V2V, V2I, SAE, IEEE

802.11p, WAVE, IEEE 1609, ISO CALM, ARIB, IntelliDrive(sm),
VII, SEVECOM, VSC, SAFESPOT, CVIS, SMARTWAY, ASV,
ITS-Safety 2010, eSafety, COMeSafety

I. I NTRODUCTION
EHICULAR networking serves as one of the most
important enabling technologies required to implement
a myriad of applications related to vehicles, vehicle traffic, drivers, passengers and pedestrians. These applications are
more than novelties and far-fetched goals of a group of
researchers and companies. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that aim to streamline the operation of vehicles, manage vehicle traffic, assist drivers with safety and other information, along with provisioning of convenience applications for passengers are no longer confined to laboratories and

test facilities of companies. Prime examples of such services include automated toll collection systems, driver assist systems and other information provisioning systems. This
grassroots movement has also been backed up by coordinated
efforts for standardization and formation of consortia and
other governmental and industrial bodies that aim to set the guiding principles, requirements, and first takes on solutions for communication systems that primarily involve vehicles and users within vehicles.

The excitement surrounding vehicular networking is not
only due to the applications or their potential benefits but

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Manuscript received 11 February 2010; revised 16 October 2010, 28 January 2011, and 28 April 2011.
G. Karagiannis and G. Heijenk are with University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands (e-mail: karagian@cs.utwente.nl).
O. Altintas is with TOYOTA InfoTechnology Center, Tokyo, Japan. E. Ekici and B. Jarupan are with Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
K. Lin is with Booz Allen Hamilton, McLean, VA, USA.
T. Weil is with Raytheon Polar Services, Centennial, Colorado, USA. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/SURV.2011.061411.00019

also due to the challenges and scale of the solutions. Among technical challenges to be overcome, high mobility of vehicles, wide range of relative speeds between nodes, real-time nature of applications, and a multitude of system and application

related requirements can be listed. Furthermore, considering ITS applications that require information to be relayed multiple hops between cars, vehicular networks are poised
to become the most widely distributed and largest scale ad
hoc networks. Such challenges and opportunities serve as the background of the widespread interest in vehicular networking by governmental, industrial, and academic bodies.
Between the years 2000 and 2009 several excellent survey
papers have appeared in the literature in the area of vehicular networking covering topics ranging from intelligent vehicle
applications to routing protocols [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11]. This...
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