DONE BY: SOUD TENGAH
BA COUNSELLING MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY
DATE: NOVEMBER 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Origin of Homosexuality
Stages of Homosexuality
INTRODUCTION Homosexuality is an issue that has often been challenging to counsellors mainly due to lack of in depth information on the issues or personal values that majority of therapist hold dear to themselves. Although counselling services has been rendered to this cluster of people there are number of issues which still emerge as a conflict to some counsellors. Core of this essay is try to find answers for counsellors who struggle in counselling homosexual due to their existing values versus counselling ethics. In addition this essay attempt to unravel some of definitions on sexuality; origin of homosexuality and stages of homosexuality. The essay will also give a personal conclusion on counselling homosexual in relation to individual values. DEFINITIONS Sexual Orientation According to the American Psychological Association, (2008) sexual orientation is enduring and also refers to a person's sense of "personal and social identity on those attractions, behaviours expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them. There are three main classification of sexual orientation: homosexual; heterosexual and bisexual. Homosexuality An attraction to and involvement with members of one’s own sex, usually including sexual relations (Feltham & Dryden, 2004) Gay generally refers to male homosexuality, and lesbian refers only to female homosexuality (Sanders & Kroll, 2000). Heterosexual Is an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affection, physical or romantic attractions primarily to persons of the opposite sex (American Psychological Association, 2008). Sexual orientation which one is attracted to involved with members of the opposite sex (Feltham & Dryden, 2004).
Bisexuality Bisexuality is sexual attitude and behaviour which is neither exclusively heterosexual nor exclusively homosexual. (Feltham & Dryden, 2004) Asexual People who have a distinct but not exclusive preference for one sex over the other may also identify themselves as bisexual. (Bogaert, 2006) Homophobia According to Sanders and Kroll (2000) is an irrational fear, intolerance, or hatred of gay men and lesbians. Heterosexism Is defined as “a belief in the inherent superiority of one form of loving (male with female) over all others and thereby the right to cultural dominance” (Sanders & Kroll, 2000). ORIGIN OF HOMOSEXUALITY An indisputable and universal fact about humanity is that every-one owes their existence to the union between their father and mother. This forms the basis for the family, the social unit of society. However, homosexual behaviour also has been known to be present in some societies throughout history in varying degrees of prevalence. According to Hubbard, (1993) over the past thirty years or so, such homosexuality behaviour has become increasingly mainstream and open. Varying theories that have been proposed to explain the genesis of homosexuality. However, this essay will focus on brief description of four theories in order to demonstrate the different angles from which the topic has been tackled. Psychoanalysis theory According to Freud (1953) believed that all humans were born bisexual in nature, and from this state, as a result of restriction in one direction or the other, both heterosexuality and homosexuality developed. He also made the distinction between two types of homosexual (or 'invert') those who are like women, seeking masculine men, and others who seek feminine qualities in their partners. Some individuals may 4
display predominantly one type of inversion or the other, whereas others might display a certain amount of both...