To develop children's peaceful living competencies, a school can work in a number of ways. They come under the following seven major levels.
1. Subject coritext
2. Subject perspectives
3. Teaching methods
4. Co-curricular activities
6. Classroom management
7. School management
The approaches take the following model.
Integration of peace education into school total curriculum
*1-b Co-curricular activities
*Model of integration of peace values into school curricuhm
This chapter focuses on the ways of integrating peace values at the subject content level, teaching methods level and subject perspective level. Others levels are discussed elsewhere here.
Since this handbook is for primary and secondary teachers, for convenience's sake we name here six subjects broadly.
Social Science Religion Physical Ed. Arts
Language includes listening, speech, reading, writing, second language and secondary literature.
Social Sciences may include geography, history and civics.
Religion may be Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam or Christianity. In certain countries they have values or moral education in place of religion. Meditations and quotations given here are generally acceptable to all religions. However, if you differ then you can use similar activities or quotations most appropriate to your religion.
Science may include environmental studies, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and botany.
Physical Education includes game and exercises.
Arts include drawing, dancing, and music.
Integration of Peace into Formal Subjects
1. Identify peace values in the lesson
Here the word 'peace value' is used rather loosely to mean all the concepts, values, principles, attitudes, skills and practices related to peaceful living. The guide for doing it takes the following four steps.
To begin with it is useful to understand the difference of the words we use here. Here is a basic clarification.
An attitude is a person's positive or negative evaluation about a particular object, behaviour, a person, a group of people, ideas, e.g. A Smoking is bad
B Reading is a good habit.
C A human value is an intrinsic positive human quality that enriches living, e.g. Love
A concept is a class of information (e.g. facts, images, attitudes, etc.) that we group together on the basis of commonalities.
(Note: Values are also concepts in this sense.)
An instruction is an informed guide to action, e.g.
Do not stay in the same place where you explode in anger
A principle is a basic general truth that guides right action, e.g. Hate is not caused by hate
Frustration leads to anger.
An aspiration is a noble wish, e.g. May all beings be happy! An ideal is a wishful standard of perfection that people have as goals to attain through a course of action.
A world without borders.
As a teacher your ability to identify a peace value in their different forms as explained above is important. Many lessons have peace values in different forms. Sometimes they are given directly. Sometimes they lie hidden or given indirectly. In some other lessons you may not find any of such. However, on close scrutiny you may realize that a certain peace value could be brought into the context as a compliment to enrich the lessons. Of course there may be lessons completely lacking in any peace value and also no peace values incorporated. Even then you need not be disappointed, because in all the cases you can adopt peace education approaches such as bringing in imagination, positive feelings and emotions and interesting learning activities in relation to the lesson objectives. The thematic model presented in this guide can help you to identify many values in the texts.
However the stress on peace value should be in line with the lesson...
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