Value Orientation

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Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961)

Culture as a solution to universal problems

Common human problems (basic assumptions of the nature of (human) reality):

1. What is the character of innate human nature? (good or evil, neutral or a mix? Mutable or immutable?) 2. What is the relation of humans to nature and supernature? (subjugation, harmony or mastery)? 3. What is the temporal focus of human life (past, present or future)? 4. What is the modality of human activity: (people as being, people as doing or people as doing to become)? 5. What is the modality of the relationship between humans (linearity, collaterality or pure individuality)? 6. What is the conception of space? (Private, public or a mix)?

The concept of time

Table 2.1 p. 28 shows time orientations according to
o Time economicity
o Monochronic versus polychronic use of time
o Linearity versus cyclicity of time
o Temporal orientations towards the past, the present and the future

Time economicity:
Examples are timetables, deadlines. Measurement of parking meter time. Attitudes towards the money value of time has an influence on marketing. Consumer behaviour depends on the time saving effects of products.

Monochronic versus polychronic use of time
Hall (1983) (M time and P time).
M time people stick to schedules while p time people stress the importance of people over time. Example: the hairdresser

Linearity (L) versus cyclicity (C) of time
Christianity (linearity)
Buddhism (reincarnation) cyclicity
People who think in cycles are more patient and perhaps less greedy Three types of cyclicity:
1) Religious assumptions about reincarnation
2) Natural rhytms of years, seasons and days
3) The social division of time periods (days of the week) (different societies had different numbers of days per week.

Temporal orientations (past, present, future)
What does it mean to be past oriented? Who are past oriented? (Europeans) Present...
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