Value-based Curriculum and Teaching Methodology : An Integrated Approach to Communal Harmony and National Integration Mohit Puri*
For a country to be truly great, there must be an understanding and the appreciation of each other's differences and strengths. The quality of the educational system need to be improved for ensuring peace and stability in the country which in turn would promote national integration. Etymologically harmony means 'binding together' and 'being in concord with one another'. From a sociological perspective, harmony can be understood as a mode of social existence. Communal harmony means living with unity, mutual reciprocity, beyond class, caste, creed and gender barriers. Communal Violence emerges as the consequence of this disturbed communal harmony.
Communal Violence is the outcome of communal disharmony
Communal Violence is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion. No universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition of communal violence currently exists. Common definitions of communal violence refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for a religious, political or ideological goals, deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians), and are committed by non-government agencies. There has been many cases of communal disharmony in India in which Ayodhya dispute and The 1984 Anti Sikh Riots are worth mentioning. Ayodhya dispute has been a political, historical and socio-religious debate in India, centred on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh. This is one rare legal battle in which the court ordered for excavations at the disputed site and also got old revenue records examined by the Forensic Science Laboratory. It is a long disputed case which always has given a threat of communal disharmony. Similarly, in 1984, Sikhs witnessed four days of violence in northern India, particularly Delhi, during which armed mobs belonging to Indian National Congress, killed unarmed Sikh men, women, and children, looted and set on fire Sikh homes, shops and schools. Throughout India, society has witnessed many more such ugly incidents such as Gujarat riots, terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, Naxalism in West Bengal, in Tamil Nadu etc. All these incidents are surely outcome of communal disharmony. All these examples show that in India, communal disharmony has become a very common phenomenon. Racial Exclusiveness being propagated by the multi-racial schools and universities would sow the seeds of misunderstanding and mistrust. The students may well drift apart only to have few superficial commonalities between them, and few genuine ties that bind them together in a common destiny. For combating the problem of communal violence, the value-based curriculum and appropriate teaching methodology is required. A value has three dimensions that cover all the possible aspects of human personality.
(i) Cognitive aspect (thought) is an idea abstract in nature. More it is clearer, stronger will be the value. That means that value is related to mental activity and cognitive development about the idea.
(ii) Affective aspect (Emotion/Feeling) means strong emotional bond with the idea.
(iii) Psychomotor aspect (Action/Behaviour) results into action of behaviour. This aspect is the final stage of culmination of a value. It is the acidic test of one’s values in life.
Value-based Curriculum in different fields can be stated as
1. Cultural values – The teaching of subjects like history, civics, physical sciences, home science, craft and co-curricular activities help in inculcating cultural values in the young students.
2. Democratic values – Fellow feeling, co-operation, understanding, humanism etc. are inculcated through various curricular and co-curricular activities.
3. Moral values – Value...
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