Valuation Allowance

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05-5     There are two basic principles related to accounting for income taxes, each of which considers uncertainty through the application of recognition and measurement criteria: * a.  To recognize the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for the current year as a tax liability or asset  * b.  To recognize a deferred tax liability or asset for the estimated future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and carryforwards. 

45-5     The valuation allowance for a particular tax jurisdiction shall be allocated between current and noncurrent deferred tax assets for that tax jurisdiction on a pro rata basis.

30-22     Examples (not prerequisites) of positive evidence that might support a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed when there is negative evidence include, but are not limited to, the following: * a.  Existing contracts or firm sales backlog that will produce more than enough taxable income to realize the deferred tax asset based on existing sales prices and cost structures  * b.  An excess of appreciated asset value over the tax basis of the entity's net assets in an amount sufficient to realize the deferred tax asset  * c.  A strong earnings history exclusive of the loss that created the future deductible amount (tax loss carryforward or deductible temporary difference) coupled with evidence indicating that the loss (for example, an unusual, infrequent, or extraordinary item) is an aberration rather than a continuing condition.  30-23     An entity shall use judgment in considering the relative impact of negative and positive evidence. The weight given to the potential effect of negative and positive evidence shall be commensurate with the extent to which it can be objectively verified. The more negative evidence that exists, the more positive evidence is necessary and the more difficult it is to support a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed for some portion or all of the deferred tax asset. A cumulative loss in recent years is a significant piece of negative evidence that is difficult to overcome.

   Future realization of a tax benefit sometimes will be expected for a portion but not all of a deferred tax asset, and the dividing line between the two portions may be unclear. In those circumstances, application of judgment based on a careful assessment of all available evidence is required to determine the portion of a deferred tax asset for which it is more likely than not a tax benefit will not be realized. Valuation Allowance 

The portion of a deferred tax asset for which it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. 40-2     An entity shall derecognize a previously recognized tax position in the first period in which it is no longer more likely than not that the tax position would be sustained upon examination. Use of a valuation allowance is not a permitted substitute for derecognizing the benefit of a tax position when the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold is no longer met. Derecognition shall be based on management’s best judgment given the facts, circumstances, and information available at the reporting date. Paragraph 740-10-30-7explains that the reporting date is the date of the entity's most recent statement of financial position. Subsequent changes in judgment that lead to derecognition shall result from the evaluation of new information and not from a new evaluation or new interpretation by management of information that was available in a previous financial reporting period.

Deferred Tax Asset 

The deferred tax consequences attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. A deferred tax asset is measured using the applicable enacted tax rate and provisions of the enacted tax law. A deferred tax asset is reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of evidence available, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be...
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