xtended Response 2 – Vaccines
1. List and describe the four traditional methods of preparing vaccine with examples. The four traditional methods of preparing vaccines are:
* Method One – contains living annuated microorganisms. These microorganisms have a reduced virulence meaning they have a reduced ability to produce symptoms so that the immunised patient has a very low chance of contracting the disease. This type of vaccination causes and immune response thus causing the production of antibodies. Examples of vaccines of annuated microorganisms include polio, tuberculosis, rubella, measles, mumps and yellow fever. * Method Two – contains dead microorganisms. This method does not usually last the same amount of time compared to the use of living annuated microorganisms. Examples of these types of vaccine are whooping cough and typhoid. * Method Three – contains the filtrates of bacterial cultures containing toxins. When the cause of the sickness is due to bacteria releasing a toxin, scientists produce a vaccine from the deactivated toxin called a toxoid rather than the whole bacteria. The use of a toxoid is safe and the immune system quickly locks to the toxin and negates its effects. Examples of these vaccines are a tetanus vaccine. * Method Four – contains fragments of the bacteria and is called the sub unit vaccine. Instead of the use of a whole bacterium, a fragment of the organism is inserted and used to cause the immune response. Examples of these vaccines include the vaccination of hepatitis B and Gardasil virus.
2. Describe the new techniques for the manufacture of vaccines with examples. Developers of modern vaccines are trying to produce vaccines that last a longer period of time and produce no side effects. Vaccines have aided the battle against diseases for well over 200 years. The successfulness of vaccinations can be seen in the eradication of smallpox and the immunization from polio. Although there has been huge success, the future still contains diseases such as HIV and Malaria which a cure or treatment is yet to be found. To combat this scientists have introduced new techniques in which they can provide new opportunities where they can answers to prevent diseases. Some of these newly produced methods are: * Live recombinant vaccines – this is the process in which the DNA of a pathogenic organism is slightly changed so it becomes less virulent. Another method is to insert certain DNA sequences from the pathogen causing production of antigen into harmless bacterial cells. An example of Live recombinant vaccines are the vaccination of Hepatitis B ( where Hepatitis B virus is grown harvested and purified in yeast.) * DNA vaccines – this is a process in which DNA coding for a particular antigen is taken and inserted to the muscle of the patient. The DNA would then, within the patient’s body, enter into the individuals’ cell. Since the body recognises the DNA as foreign, it beings to produce an immune response. An example of DNA vaccines is the vaccinia virus.
3. List a minimum of 8 common side effects that are linked to the use of vaccines. Side effects that are linked to the use vaccinations are:
* The injection may cause swelling, itchiness, redness or a burning sensation at the injection site for 1 – 2 days. * Fainting
* Vomiting or Diarrhoea
* Loss of appetite
* Swelling of the glands e.g. Cheeks and neck
* Tenderness at the injection site.
4. Discuss the risks and ethical concerns with the production and use of vaccines. Before any vaccine is produced for the use of the general public, it is thoroughly tested to examine the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. Within Australia, the vaccine would have to pass through the Therapeutic Goods Administration to recognise if it is at a high standard. The most...