LEBU SARAH ATIENO
A RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN WILDLIFE HEALTH AND MANAGEMENT OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY
I LEBU SARAH ATIENO declare that the work presented in this special project report is my own original piece of work unless otherwise stated and has never been submitted anywhere for any award or recognition. Signed--------------------------Date--------------------------
This work has been supervised and approved by:
Mr. Sebulime Peregrine
Department of Wildlife and Animal Resource Management
School of Veterinary Medicine
This work is dedicated to my mother, Gertrude Lebu. You are the best.
I extend my sincere appreciation to the WARM Department for all the assistance they have accorded me. I am forever grateful to my supervisor Mr. Peregrine Sebulime; I would not have succeeded without your help. I am also grateful to the staff of Makerere University Botany Herbarium; Madam Olivia, I owe you.
To my parents, Mr. and Mrs. William Lebu, whose tireless efforts in educating me have reaped these results, I offer my gratitude. Special thanks go to Blaise Lebu who assisted me tremendously in the field, local leaders of Pakelle Subcounty, the herbalists, resource users and all respondents in who provided the information. Heartfelt thanks too go to my dear colleagues, especially Joward Baluku.
To all those who made this possible, God bless you all.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Indigenous plants play an important role in sustaining the health care of rural people especially in the developing world. About 80 % of the world’s population (Al-Janabi and Schäfer, 2001; WHO, 2002; Owuor et al., 2006; Ssegawa and Kasenene, 2007) depends on plants and their extracts for primary health care. In South Africa, for example, over 60 % of the population uses indigenous medicinal plants to treat a myriad of local diseases (Van Wyk et al., 1997) and the ratio of traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) to patients (1:700-1200) is far greater than that of western medical practitioners (WMP) to patients 1:17-400 (Marshall, 1998). In Uganda, the ratio of TMP to patients is 1: 290 compared to the ratio of 1:10,000 for WMP to patient in urban and 1:50,000 in rural areas (Kamatenesi-Mugisha et al., 2007). The popularity of traditional medicine (TM) in the rural areas is attributed to its being cheaper and more accessible than modern pharmaceutical medicine (MPM), (Nickel and Sennhauser, 1995). Furthermore, TM is based on natural plant remedies that have minimal side effects and are more user-friendly relative to modern pharmaceutical medicine (Kokwaro, 1976; Nickel and Sennhauser, 1995; Shackleton et al., 1995). According to Sheldon et al. (1998), 250,000 species of higher plants exist worldwide. About 35,000 of these are used for medicinal purposes worldwide (Al-Janabi and Schäfer 2001). The ailments treated include malaria, reproductive ailments, common ailments and several other physiological disorders. Over 4,000 of the said species occur in Africa. Available modern medication for cough is disregarded by most of the rural people in Ugandan and other developing countries. Yet, in traditional medicine, there are several medicinal plants that have been relied on for use in the treatment of cough. Little of this ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge has been earlier documented and scientifically validated for efficacy and safety, future drug discovery and development. Therefore, this particular study was carried out purposely to understand and document medicinal plants used by local residents and herbalists to treat cough...