1. Jeremy Bentham
2. John Stuart Mill
(Principle of Utility)- An act is right so far as it leads to more happiness for more people; wrong so far as it leads to the reverse of happiness for more people. Happiness = “pleasure”
Classic Utilitarianism is basically a social hedonism.
Consequential ethical theory
An act is good if it leads to good consequences.
No act is intrusively right or wrong; but only in virtue of its consequences. Bentham focuses on increasing total quality of pleasure.
How does one measure the quality of pleasure produced by the actions? Bentham’s answer: Perform the hedonic calculus
Also known as hedons.
John Stuart Mill- Revised Utilitarianism
1. Distinguishes between quantity and quality(with respect to pleasure)
Higher quality-Rational intellectual pleasure
Lower quality- Bodily pleasure
Better to be a man dissatisfied than a pig satisfied
Who decides which pleasures are best?
The competent judges- Those who have experienced both.
Immanuel Kart- “Deontological Ethics”
1. What ought one to do?
Do your duty-which is to act out of duty to the moral law of reason-which kant calls
Categorical Imperative(the law of practical reason)
Deontological ethics- Duty ethics
Non-consequential ethical theory
It is not the consequences that are morally relevant. It is the reason or motive underlying the act. Man’s transcendental freedom and dignity
If you desire x_________ then you ought to do x________.
Do x__________ because it’s your duty to do x______.
A good will- the only thing that is good without qualification. One that acts out of duty to the law of practical reason.
The categorical imperative
V1. Act only on that maxim that you can also will (consistently) to become a universal law for all rational agents. Maxim- subjective rule of behavior.
Maxim- whenever I am in need of cash I will go to someone I...
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