Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere Assess the View That Social Class Differences in Educational Achievement Are the Result of School Processes Such as Labelling.

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Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess the view that social class differences in educational achievement are the result of school processes such as labelling.

Social class background has a powerful influence on a child's chances of success in the educational system, a child is often labeled from the first year of school based on stereotyped assumptions about their class background, in the society there are significant social class, gender and ethnic inequalities of educational achievement. Differences in cultural and material circumstances operating outside the school environment and processes that take place between working class and middle class students within the schools themselves which involve negative and positive labeling. Some explanations of class differences in achievement focus on internal factors within school and the educational system. Interactionists have taken this approach further, they have examined the way in which labeling is linked to other processes within schools that result in class differences in achievement, these processes include the self-fulfilling prophecy, streaming and the polarization into anti and pro-school pupil subcultures as stated by Item A. The self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having being made, which leads to a student’s underachievement. If teachers have low expectations of certain children and communicate these expectations in their interaction, these children may develop a negative self-concept. They may come to see themselves as failures and give up trying, thereby fulfilling their original prophecy and leads to one’s underachievement. Studies show that self-fulfilling prophecy is particularly less likely to occur when children are streamed. Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups or classes called 'streams'. Each ability group is taught separately from the other for all subjects. Howard Becker carried out an study and found that...
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