Information & Management 47 (2010) 53–59
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Information & Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/im
User acceptance of hedonic digital artifacts: A theory of consumption values perspective Oﬁr Turel a,*, Alexander Serenko b,1, Nick Bontis c,2
College of Business and Economics, California State University Fullerton, P.O. Box 6848, Fullerton, CA 92834-6848, USA Faculty of Business Administration, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada c DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada b
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
Article history: Received 24 June 2008 Received in revised form 11 September 2009 Accepted 2 October 2009 Available online 14 October 2009 Keywords: Technology adoption Perceived value Hedonic technologies Digital products Mobile commerce Ringtones
Hedonic digital artifacts have become prevalent in today’s society. Their users typically pay for them, and in exchange are generally provided with beneﬁts involving enjoyment. Today’s research on technology adoption and use, though, has focused mostly on organizational or personal aids that provide efﬁciency and effectiveness and are free of charge for users. To bridge this gap, we identiﬁed several value drivers of hedonic digital artifacts and measured them in the context of mobile phone ringtones using the theory of consumption values. Hypothesis testing was performed using PLS on data collected from 422 ringtone users. Results conﬁrmed that the overall value of hedonic digital artifacts is a third-order composite assessment, which successfully predicted behavioral usage and positive word-of-mouth intentions. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. ß 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction Most business studies that focus on technology adoption have concentrated on organizational, productivity-oriented technologies. However, the development of innovative, non-productive, intrinsically motivated artifacts for personal use has changed the boundaries of technology management research: its extended scope includes artifacts that not only directly facilitate organizational processes but also provide enjoyment and other intrinsic stimuli. Such systems have become prevalent in the marketplace; many contemporary elements are employed primarily for hedonic, lifestyle-augmentation, such as entertainment and non-instrumental purposes. For example, users do not expect substantial gains, if any, when downloading an MP3 song, watching video-ondemand over the Internet, or playing an online game. ITs that exclusively offer such enjoyment-oriented environments are termed hedonic digital artifacts. Their market has been booming. For instance, in 2005, there were over two million songs available online, yielding over $1B in sales for record companies. In 2006, the online sales of music
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 657 278 5613; fax: +1 347 823 1945. E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (O. Turel), email@example.com (A. Serenko), firstname.lastname@example.org (N. Bontis). 1 Tel.: +1 807 343 8698; fax: +1 807 343 8443. 2 Tel.: +1 905 525 9140x23918; fax: +1 905 521 8995. 0378-7206/$ – see front matter ß 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.im.2009.10.002
doubled, and 11% of recorded music sales were digital downloads or subscriptions. By 2010, the US consumers are expected to spend $7.8B on digital music, TV, and movie downloads. Another example is the online gaming sector, which is expected to produce $11B in revenues by 2009. These numbers demonstrate that people have shifted to digital media in consuming some hedonic products that were previously offered as hard-media. Because this represents a lucrative business opportunity, user adoption of hedonic digital artifacts and its drivers deserve the attention of researchers. The...