Use of Robot for Medical and Biological Purpose

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ALL INDIA SHRI SHIVAJI MEMORIAL SOCIETY’S
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PUNE.

BY
MAYUR WAKHARE
AND
ADITYA MUKHEDKAR

mayurwakhare@gmail.com
mukhedkar.aditya@gmail.com

INDEX

* INTRODUCTION.......................................................3 * WHY ROBOTS AND AUTOMATION IN BIOLOGY
AND MEDICINE.......................................................3 * ROBOTCS TOOLS, DEVICES, SYSTEMS..............4
* KEY TECHNOLOGY.................................................5 * FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH CHALLENGES......6
* QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONS.......................................................7 * CONCLUSION............................................................8 * REFERNCES...............................................................9

ROBOTICS FOR BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

Authors-
Yuan Zheng, George Bekey, Arthur Sanderson

BACKGROUND
This chapter describes research activities currently conducted in the world that are related to robotics for biological and medical applications. Robotics for medical applications started fifteen years ago while for biological applications it is rather new (about five years old). In this chapter, we first discuss why we need robots and automation in biology and medicine. Then we present robotic tools, devices and systems, key technologies, and fundamental research challenges that are relevant to the two applications. Research activities conducted and visited by the assessment team in the U.S., Japan, Korea and Europe are introduced.

WHY ROBOTS AND AUTOMATION IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
Biological Applications
The primary purpose for use of robotics in biology is to achieve high throughput in experiments related to research and development of life science. Those experiments involve the delivery and dispensation of biological samples/solutions in large numbers each with very small volumes. Typical applications include high-throughput systems for large-scale DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, haplotype mapping, compound screening for drug development, and bio-solution mixing and dispensing for membrane protein crystallization. Without robots and automation, biosamples/solutions must be handled manually by human hands, which is not only tedious but also slow. Various robotic systems have been developed in laboratories that are either specially developed for a particular application or integration of commercially available robots, general purpose tools and sensors. The second purpose of robotics for biological applications is for effective handling and exploration of molecular and cell biology. This type of application includes immobilization of individual cells, cell manipulation, and cell injection for pronuclei DNA insertion. Special tools fabricated using different technologies have to be developed such as lasers for microsensing and manipulating, electroactive polymer for cell manipulation, and microneedles for cell penetration. Another interesting area of application is robotics-inspired algorithms for molecular and cellular biology. This includes the work for predicting protein folding, and for structural biology (Zheng and Chen, 2004). High-throughput systems for DNA sequencing (U. Of Washington) (Meldrum and Kavraki, 2004).

Medical Applications
Research on robotics for medical applications started fifteen years ago and is very active today. The purpose is three-fold. First it is for robotic surgery. Robotic surgery can accomplish what doctors cannot because of precision and repeatability of robotic systems. Besides, robots are able to operate in a contained space inside 6. Robotics for Biological 64 and Medical Applications

the human body. All these make robots especially suitable for non-invasive or minimally invasive surgery and for better outcomes of surgery. Today, robots have been demonstrated or routinely used for heart, brain, spinal cord, throat, and knee...
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