Use of Ict in Teaching – Learning & Evaluation

Topics: Virtual learning environment, E-learning, Instructional design Pages: 20 (6896 words) Published: August 12, 2012
Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT, New Delhi


State Institute of Education, Chandigarh

Educational Technology Lecture Series

February 27, 2009


Prof. D N Sansanwal
Ex Director, School of Education
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore




Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable teachers, individualized and learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training so as to develop required competency to become a teacher. Teachers have been conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers. Central Government realized the need of improving quality of education through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher, schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and Principal, etc. Along with A – V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to Programmed Learning Material based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning. Programmed Learning Materials were compared with that of Lecture Method or Conventional Method. Programmed Learning Material alone as well as in combination with other methods for teaching different subjects was found to be effective in terms of achievement of students (Bhushan, 1973; Dewal, 1974; Pandya, 1974; Shitole, 1976; Kuruvilla, 1977; Patel, 1977; Sodhi, 1977; Verma, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mullick, 1979; Parlikar, 1979; Shah, 1979; Pandey, 1980; Seshadri, 1980; Shah, 1980; Trivedi, 1980; Inamdar, 1981; Man, 1981; Mavi, 1981; Suthar, 1981; Davies, 1982; Ravindranath, 1982; Menon, 1984; Choudhary, 1985; Gautam, 1986; Joshi, 1988; Thaker, 1993; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; Pandit, 2003; Dubey, 2004 & Kaur, 2005). PLM was found to be as effective as Structured Lecture Method in terms of achievement of students (Chandrakala, 1976; Govinda, 1976). Lecture Method was found more effective than Demonstration Method and Programmed Learning Method (Ghetiya, 1999). Also students expressed favourable opinion towards PLM (Govinda, 1976; Chauhan, 1973; Kuruvilla, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mavi, 1981; Davies, 1982; Menon, 1984; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; and Kaur, 2005). In addition to it, the developed...
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