Usage of Fortified Flour in Cba Women in Fiji

Topics: Iron, Iron deficiency anemia, Human iron metabolism Pages: 6 (1858 words) Published: March 26, 2013
1. Introduction
2.1. Background
One of the most extensive nutritional deficiencies is iron deficiency. Globally >2 billion people are suffering from iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is the mineral found in every cell of the human body. [1] During blood loss, inadequate iron intake, pregnancy and poor absorption of iron the human body suffers a condition called iron deficiency anemia. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements it is declared that iron needs vary by gender and by age. Infants need atleast 11mg/day while the need drops to 7mg/day at toddlers. At ages 4years to 8 year the need arises to 10mg/day and then drops again as they are between ages 9year to 13year. As both genders reach puberty their need for iron differs. At the age of 14year to 18 years boys need 11mg/day where as girls need 15mg/day. The reason being that girls go through menstruation by this age. From ages 19years to 50years, men need 8 mg while women need 18 mg daily. Iron needs increase during pregnancy and lactation this can also be called child bearing age (CBA). [2] Food fortification with iron has been suggested as one of the ideal approaches for preventing and eradicating iron deficiency. Nevertheless fortification with bioavailable iron sources often presents numerous challenges in product acceptance, product shelf life, and effectiveness in improving iron status [1]. In a survey carried out in 2010 and published in 2012 by Ministry of Health –Fiji (MOH) whereby it was stated by Dr.Niel Sharma (Minister of Health-Fiji) that in late 1990’s the Fiji Government requested assistance from international and regional partner agencies including UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), WHO (World Health Organization) and MI (Micronutrient Initiative) to eradicate and fight against anemia in Fiji especially in women of child bearing age. The solution to this issue was derived by fortifying all locally milled flour in 2004 with internationally approved micronutrient standards. [3]

Fiji is not the only country that is facing the problem of iron deficiency in CBA women other countries to list are United State, Europe, Asian regions and almost all of these countries came up with the solution of food fortified with iron. The derived solution was a success. For developed countries the success was seen a vast rate this could be due the economic growth of the countries. [4][5]. Iron fortification has been in existence in Fiji since 2005. For a small country like Fiji the problem should have been eradicated yet people are still affected thus review on the countries progress is essential component towards identifying the need for change in strategies involved. In the year 2011, Sarah Zimmerman clearly stated that fortified flour with folic acid usage have reduced birth defects problems for the past fifteen years. It was also stated that in year 1996 countries like Oman was the first country followed by .U.S and Canada who added folic acid in flours in order to prevent fatal birth defects. But these larger countries did not achieve nationwide coverage till 1997. [6] Sumithra Muthayya in year 2012 stated that the fortified wheat flour markedly improved body iron stores and reduced iron deficiency in iron depleted children in India. The study recommended for wider use of fortified wheat in national school feeding programs. [7] The review of progress of iron fortified flour usage would be an essential component in monitoring and generating evaluation plans to attain the target set by the Ministry of Health Fiji to reduce anemia in CBA women worldwide.

2.2. Problem statement
Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting millions of people in both developed and under-developed countries. Current WHO and UNICEF guidelines recommend that interventions for the prevention and the control of iron deficiency should follow an integrated, long-term approach. [4] In a study conducted by Grimm K...
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