Us. World History

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16. Consider the relationships and contact of European societies with Asia, Africa, and the New World from 1492 to 1914. What are the changes and continuities in these relationships? What did the Europeans want in each area of the world? How was the European trading systems different from the earlier systems involving Dar-Al-Islam? What effects did these contacts have on the Europeans? On the societies contacted? You might want to make a chart of these causes and effects. How did the patterns of world trade change from 1492 to 1914? The Europeans used the power of seas and oceans to control the export of specific products. They had products such as pepper, cinnamon, and nutmeg. They regulated commerce with Asian trading network that stretched from ports of the Red Sea to South China. Many European seafaring nations were involved in South and Southeast Asia and was based on trade. The European powers struggled to find the most profitable ways to get things that they wanted from Asia. Most of the Europeans went to Asia to find Christian converts instead of personal gain. Also some stayed to live in coastal enclaves, but trade and commercial profits let Europeans explore, fight in wars and have a hard time to live in Asia in nearly the first century of European overseas expansion. Africa also used their African coast to trade with China and the New World. 80 percent of Africans died in middle passage voyage from African to the New World. Many people died in trading because people began getting infected with disease and spread them. Everywhere in West Africa was the region influenced by trans-Atlantic slave trade. The East Coast of Africa traded along the Indian Ocean with many Ottoman Turks. Some continuities is that we use some of the same patterns of trading  throughout 1492-1914. For example, we still use the availability of oceans and seas to trade along the coasts of countries. But there were many changes as well. During the 1800's and 1900's, technology became more advanced.  This led to easier ways for trading. Africans traded for ivory, gold, and especially slaves, with the New World. The slaves were forced to go to the households to work. Some places that had many slaves are Arabia and many areas of the Middle East. Europeans also took many slaves. Europeans always needed slaves to go work on their plantation colony. The East African coast was the area that supplied the most slaves. They shipped the slaves off to any country that had something in return for the Africans. Europeans established many plantation style colonies on islands such as Mauritius (located in the Indian Ocean) but they always depended on the East African Slave trade. Slavery became a prominent feature of the east African coast and the slave trade from the interior to these plantations and to the traditional slave markets of the Red Sea kept going till the end of the 19th century. The effect on the Europeans was that they were making many plantations and were able to make a lot of money with the other countries that they were in contact with because they traded their plantation for other expensive goods. Dar al Islam was different from Europe because in order for them to trade their plantation and crops, they had to work on it to make it grow. Unlike the Europeans, they have slaves doing the work for them. After the good results of the Europeans, other countries bought slaves, knowing that they would have more done, and more goods to trade.    

17. The industrial revolution is a major concept in terms of the world history. What factors were necessary to have an industrial revolution? Where did it begin? Where did it spread? How did it change patterns of economic, social, and intellectual interaction? What advantages and disadvantages did it bring? Compare the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century with those brought by the movements toward Globalization of the twentieth century.. For an industrial revolution to...
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