Us History Outline 1800's-1900

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EXPLORING THE WEST
* No stop to the expansion to the west
* 1840, Americans occupied all East of the Mississippi River * Less than 60 years after independence, most of population lived west THE FUR TRADE
* Fur trade boosted exploration on America
* Traders & trappers depended on the goodwill of Natives
* Oregon Country was the trading place for Natives and Americans * Not until 1820 were Americans be able to challenge British dominance of the trans-Mississippi fur trade. * Rendezvous System instituted by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company * Trappers brought their catch of furs to then trade them for goods transported by the fur companies * Trappers and traders lived in the mountains with relations of sorts with the Natives nearby * Trappers & Traders would usually take Native wives

GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED EXPLORATION
* The federal government played a major role in the exploration & development of the West * 1803 Louisiana Purchase by Thomas Jefferson influenced American westward expantion * Jefferson sent Lewis & Clark to persuade Natives into the American trading network to steer them away from the British * Lewis & Clark set a precedent for many government-financed expeditions * The government published results of these expeditions and photos came after the Civil War * Land Ordinance of 1785 told how Federal Government sold lands * Federal Government sold lands cheap and gave land away to Veterans of 1812 EXPANSION AND INDIAN POLICY

* Eastern Indian tribes were being removed from their homelands to Indian Territory * Jefferson claimed this would allow Natives to live quietly and learn “civilized” ways * Government officials who negotiated the removals failed to predict the tremendous speed which white people would settle West causing encroachment on Indian Territory * Government abolished Northern section on the Indian territory then became Kansas & Nebraska territory * Northern natives were given smaller reservations or allotments of land * Southern Natives did better

* The Natives made self-governing nations with schools and churches * Slavery was also on the Indian territory
* Removal of the Eastern tribes did not solve “the Indian problem” THE POLITICS OF EXPANSION
* America’s rapid expansion had many consequences, but perhaps the most significant was that it reinforced Americans’ sense of themselves pioneering * Repeated experience of settling new frontiers across the continent had shaped Americans into a uniquely adventurous, optimistic, and democratic people MANIFEST DESTINY, AN EXPANSIONISY IDEOLOGY

* 1854, Newspaperman, John O’Sullivan argued it was America’s destiny to spread democracy * After panic of 1837 many politicians believed that the nation’s prosperity depended on expanded trade w/Asia * Manifest destiny was evangelical on a larger scale

* Democrats supported expansion
* Whigs feared expansion would raise the contentious issue of the extension of slavery to new territories * Democrats did not like the factory system and large cities causing many to move West THE OVERLAND TRAILS

* Trips by land were cheaper than by sea
* Settlers were pulled in by success stories, and to escape the malaria inclined mid-west * Groups of settlers, wagon trains, formed communities for the trip * Attacks from natives were slim

* Deaths were mainly caused by whites attacking Native Americans * Cholera killed at least a thousand people a year in 1849 and the early 1850s when it stalked sections of the trail along the Platte River * People highly prone to accidents

* Members in the community lent each other a hand
* Transcontinental railroad ended wagon train tradition
OREGON
* American settlement of Oregon provides a capsule example of the stages of frontier development * First contact with region’s Native people were commercial * Relations were...
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