Us History Chapter 4 Notes.

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Chapter Four.
African Slaves Build their Own Community in Coastal Georgia Slavery was originally prohibited in the original 1732 Georgia charter; the ban was lifted two decades later when Georgia became a Royal colony. By 1770, 15,000 slaves made up 80% of the population. Rice was one of the most valuable commodities of mainland North America, surpassed only by tobacco and wheat. The Atlantic slave trade grew to match rice production. “Saltwater” slaves (slaves taken from Africa, rather than “country born”) were inspected and branded on coastal forts in Africa, shipped overseas (where many died), then sold and marched to plantations Mortality rates were high for slaves, especially infants. Overseers could legally punish slaves and even murder them. Many slaves run and some rebel. Most slaves remained enslaved, but built up families and communities, mixing African traditions with their new homeland. The Beginnings of African Slavery

Slavery has long been a part of Mediterranean Europe; Venetian and Genoese traders sold captured Slavics (the word slave derives from them), Muslims, and Africans. Enslaving Christians, but not Africans or Muslims, disturbed many Europeans. Portuguese expansion in West Africa was motivated by access to gold, wrought iron, ivory, tortoiseshells, textiles, and slaves (previously dominated by the Moors, or Spanish Muslims). European slaves left the slave hunting to the African traders. Sugar and Slavery

Slaves were imported to work sugar plantations in Hispaniola and Brazil, among other islands. The Dutch expanded the European sugar market, leading France and England to start island sugar colonies as well. West Africans

Marriage kinship ties, practicing polygamy, characterized societies on the West African coast. Women enjoyed social and economic independence. Shifting cultivation, cultivating land for several years then moving on while the cleared land lay fallow, helped build up African communities and commerce, creating states and kingdoms. Kingdoms on the coast were the ones who first traded with the Portuguese. Slavery in African society was much freer; slaves were treated as family members rather than possessions, were allowed to marry, and had freeborn children. The African Slave Trade

The Demography of the Slave Trade
10-12 million slaves were transported to the Americas during the slave trade. 76% of slaves arrived from 1701-1810, the peak years of the slave trade. Half went to Dutch, French, or British plantations in the Caribbean, a third to Portuguese Brazil, and a tenth to Spanish America. About 5% went to the North American British colonies. With the exception of the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763, a world war between the French and their allies versus the British and their allies), the slave trade continued to become more important to the colonies up to the Revolution. There were twice as many male African slaves as female; most slaves were young, between 15 and 30, and represented nearly every West African ethnic group. Slavers of All Nations

All western European nations participated in the slave trade, shipping slaves from coastal outposts and, later, through independent American and European traders. The Shock of Enslavement

Many slave traders lived permanently in coastal outposts and married local women, reinforcing commercial ties through family relations. Many slaves resented African involvement in the slave trade. Most Africans were enslaved through warfare. As the demand for slaves increased, slave raids pressed deeper into the continent. Captives would wait in dungeons or pens called “barracoons”, separated from family and people of the same ethnic group to discourage rebellion, before being branded with the mark of their buyer. The Middle Passage

The “Middle Passage” referred to the middle part of...
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