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Urine Formation

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  • November 2012
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Name : Dania Annuar
Class: M11G
Title : Determination of Chloride in Urine in Different Circumstances

Aim:
To determine the chloride content by titrating mixtures of urine against potassium thiocyanate under in different circumstances.

Research Question:
How do different conditions of urine samples collected affect its concentration of chloride which is measured by titrating the mixture of urine with potassium thiocyanate until it turns red?

Hypothesis:
The greater the consumption of food, the higher the chloride concentration in urine. This can be investigated by varying the time when the urine sample is taken. One urine sample is taken before meal, one after meal and the third sample should be after a high consumption of water. The lesser the volume of the potassium thiocyanate needed to turn the mixture of urine sample to red, the higher the amount of chloride content in the urine.

Variables:
Variable| Unit| Methods of controlling|
Independent:Conditions when urine sample is taken| | The urine samples are taken at the specified times and conditions; before meal, after meal and after a high consumption of water.| Dependent :Volume of potassium thiocyanate needed to turn the urine mixture red. | Cm3| Record the volume of potassium thiocyanate needed to turn the urine mixtures red using the process of titration.|

Variable| Unit| Methods of controlling| Possible effects on results| Constant: Volume of urine and silver nitrate solution| cm3| Use 2cm3 of urine for each sample and 10cm3 of silver nitrate solution for every trial.| If different volumes of urine sample and silver nitrate solution are used, the concentration of the mixture will be different and this will affect the end result of the experiment.| Concentration of potassium thiocyanate and silver nitrate| M| 0.1 M of potassium thiocyanate and silver nitrate are used.| A higher concentration will increase the rate of reaction and this will affect the...