BIO 202 LECTURE
1.Identify the components of the urinary system and describe the functions it performs. The urinary system consist of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Each components has its own functions like kidneys filter blood, Ureters carry urine to the bladder stores urine, Urethra releases urine to external environment .
2.Describe the location and structural features of the kidneys. Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.
3.Identify the major blood vessel associated with each kidney and trace the path of blood flow through a kidney. Each kidney receives blood from a renal artery. The kidneys receive 20 to 25 percent of the total cardiac output, or approximately 2.5 pints (1,200 milliliters) of blood per minute. After circulating through the kidney and nephrons, the blood is collected in the renal vein. The renal nerves innervate the kidneys.
4. Describe the structure of the nephron and outline the processes involved in the formation of urine. Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Two general classes of nephrons are cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons, both of which are classified according to the location of their associated renal corpuscle. Each nephron is composed of an initial filtering component and a tubule specialized for reabsorption and secretion. Composed of a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, the renal corpuscle is the beginning of the nephron. The renal tubule is the portion of the nephron containing the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus. The nephron carries out nearly all of the kidney's functions. Each distal convoluted tubule delivers its filtrate to a system of collecting ducts, the first segment of which is...
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