December 14, 2012
Urbanization is defined as the process of becoming urban. Urban growth trends in the world’s poorest countries have been increasing rapidly over the past few years. This is contributing to the third urban revolution which is a result of many poor countries entering the high-growth stage 2 of demographic transition theory. People are living longer which contributes to population increases in countries like Asia, Latin America, and especially Africa. With the increase in population, people are forced to go beyond their boundaries in search of a better life. Millions of people are leaving the rural area annually in search of jobs, education, health care, conveniences and social amenities. The history of urbanization in Nigeria dates back to the early medieval period, which was characterized by the revival of trade and is in part what it derives from. The process of urbanization in Nigeria can be understood by two related theories, the central place theory of Walter Christaller and the location theory by August Losch. These theories declare that cities develop from economies largely devoted to trading and similar tertiary activities (Mabogunje, 1965). Nigeria in the 1970s had possibly the fastest urbanization growth rate in the world. Between 1970 and 2010 the estimated total of Nigerians living in urban areas was estimated to have grown from 16% to 40% of the nation’s total. The world’s 29th largest urban agglomeration in 1995 was Lagos, the former administrative capital of Nigeria which had 6.5 million inhabitants. It became the 23rd largest in 2000 with 8.8 million. The city continues to grow and in 2002 became one of sub-Saharan Africa’s first mega-urban regions with a population of 10 million. It is estimated to grow to 16 million inhabitants by 2015 becoming the world’s 11th largest urban system (Antai & Moradi, 2010)....