Lecture 1 Notes: Global Context of Urbanization What is urban : “The reorganization of human society from being predominantly rural and agricultural to being predominantly urban and non-agricultural” (Weeks, J. 2008).
Where do we draw the lines? political boundaries economical boundaries daily urban system regions and mega-regions
Conceptual definition of Urban: “A spatial concentration of people whose lives are organized around non-agricultural activities” 1. Population size 2. Space (land area) 3. The ratio of population to space (density or concentration) 4. Economic and social organization Practical definition of Urban: With lack of available data and for expediency, urban is usually defined only by population size. (e.g. 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, or more) In reality, many different countries define “Urban” differently. And, it is hard to clearly discern between rural and urban. Examples of Different Urban Definitions The US:
-UA (urban area): a densely settled population of at least 50,000 people -UC (urban cluster): a densely settled population of 2,500-50,000 people Canada: - Urban place/area: a population of at least 1,000 concentrated within a continuously built-up area, at a density of at least 400/km2 - City: a place with at least 100,000 inhabitants Others: Singapore: a City state (100% urbanites)
Urbanization: Kingsley Davis Definition: „Proportion of the total population concentrated in urban settlements‟
Urbanization Process: “The switch from a spread out pattern of human settlement to one of concentration in urban centers” (Davis, 1965 Level of urbanization Vs rate of urbanization Level of Urbanization - Percent of total population living in urban areas (relative concept) - Different from simple urban growth as a result of population growth in absolute number Rate of Urbanization - Percent increase in total urban population over course of a year - Tells us speed at which urban population is increasing The process of urbanization: The world is rapidly becoming urban:
Most of the developed world are already well urbanized which explains the slow urbanization rate compared to the developing world. The largest cities are Sao Paolo, Mexico city and Tokyo, with projection to have Delhi, Mumbai and Tokyo for 2015. World’s largest city considering population size. However variations are noticeable mainly in terming the boundaries of the urban agglomeration. What makes urban growth: Population Internal migration (rural to urban) Natural increase o Fertility rates
Complex pattern of sex ratio in cities (e.g. war times) International migration (e.g. Toronto and Canada overall) Reclassification of cities with administrative purpose (e.g. Halifax amalgamation with combined with three adjacent small cities to it and became a big agglomeration)
Metropolitanizaiton and agglomeration (e.g. Canada’s CMAs, a mega-city)
Developed World (e.g. European and North American countries) - Follow a recognizable pattern of urbanization - An S-shaped curve (see figure 9.2 p.357 textbook) - Based on “modernization theory” Developing World: - Fast urbanizing regions (with urban population growth rates 4.6 percent more than 7 times the GR of industrialized nations.) - But no clear links b/t industrialization (economic development) and urbanization - Unemployment, poverty, environmental degradation and overtaxed urban infrastructure Primate City: a disproportionately large leading city holding a central place in the economy of the country
The rank-size rule (Zipf 1949) Pi = P1/ Ri Pi: the population size of a given city P1: the population of the largest city Ri: the rank of city I by population size
e.g. the largest city with 5 million The second largest city… 5/2 (2. 5) million This rule works well for the developed countries however fails for the developing world because most of the population either lives in a primus city and the rest of the...