Many countries were being overwhelmed by urbanization which can be compared to a tsunami. Moreover, it must be done to develop national urban policy and institutional capacity to ensure jobs and prosperity and to tackle environmental challenges. We need to re-design our cities to face these challenges. What we are looking now is a huge process of urbanization in Indonesia which goes hand in hand with development. You cannot have one without the other. The problem is that the institutional architecture cannot keep pace with urbanization. We think, If there is no proper anticipation, urbanization becomes a mess. Then, if you try to correct the problem afterwards, it’ll cost a lot to fix. Countries are overwhelmed by urbanization. It’s like a tsunami. Urbanization goes faster than the capacity to manage it. Then, what’s exactly the meaning of Urbanization?
Urbanization, urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of rural migration and even suburban concentration into cities, particularly the very largest ones.
Urbanization is the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. Internal rural to urban migration means that people move from rural areas to urban areas. In this process the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. Natural increase of urbanization can occur if the natural population growth in the cities is higher than in the rural areas. This scenario, however, rarely occurs. A country is considered to urbanized when over 50 per cent of its population live in the urban areas.
Urbanization is the serious problem in Indonesia. The population distribution between the rural areas and the city will cause various issues of our social life. The number of urban population increases significantly and it imbalanced with the amount of employment, public facilities, law enforcement, housing, the provision of food, and others. Urbanization certainly is an issue that must be resolved and find the way out soon. In order to solve this, we need to plan for it. At national level, you need urban policy and at local level, you need city extensions.
There is no consistent and universally accepted standard for making the distinction between urban and rural. The wide variety of situations across countries makes it difficult to adopt uniform criteria for distinguishing urban and rural areas. Most countries have adopted an urban classification related to the size or characteristics of settlements. Other countries have defined urban areas based on the presence of certain infrastructure and services. And some countries have designated urban areas based on administrative arrangements. The population of a city or metropolitan area depends on the boundaries chosen. For example, in 1990 Beijing, China, contained 2.3 million people in 87 square kilometers of “inner city” and 5.4 million in 158 square kilometers of “core city.” The population of “inner city and inner suburban districts” was 6.3 million, and that of “inner city, inner and outer suburban districts, and inner and outer counties” was 10.8 million. (For most countries the last definition is used.) Estimates of the world’s urban population would change significantly if China, India, Indonesia, and a few other populous nations were to change their definition of urban centers. In addition to the continuous migration of people from rural to urban areas, one of the main reasons for this shift was the rapid growth in the hundreds of towns reclassified as cities in recent years. To estimate urban populations, UN ratios of urban to total population were applied to the World Bank’s estimates of total population. The urban population with access to improved sanitation facilities is defined as people with access to at least adequate excreta disposal facilities that can...