Urbanization and Environmental Degradation

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Urbanization & Environmental Degradation Analysis

By
Anupam Rozario - 26
Anupam Gogoi – 27
Anupam Verma – 28

ABSTRACT

Urbanization refers to general increase in population and the amount of industrialization of a settlement. It includes increase in the number and extent of cities. It symbolizes the movement of people from rural to urban areas. Urbanization happens because of the increase in the extent and density of urban areas. Due to uncontrolled urbanization in India, environmental degradation has been occurring very rapidly and causing many problems like land insecurity, worsening water quality, excessive air pollution, noise and the problems of waste disposal. This paper emphasizes on the effect of urbanization on environmental components mainly climate, biosphere, land and water resources. A case study of urbanization in India and metropolitan cities have been carried out leading to conclude on the existing causes of damage to the environment due to urbanization and preventive measures to keep a check on them. Although it is impossible to restrict urbanization it has to be ensured that urbanization proceeds in the right path causing minimum impact on environment.

INTRODUCTION
Urbanization is a process that leads to the growth of cities due to industrialization and economic development, and that leads to urban- specific changes in specialization, labour division and human behaviours. The population is growing at the rate of about 17 million annually which means a staggering 45,000 births per day and 31 births per minutes. If the current trend continues, by the year 2050, India would have 1620 million populations. Due to uncontrolled urbanization in India, environmental degradation has been occurring very rapidly and causing many problems like shortages of housing, worsening water quality, excessive air pollution, noise, dust and heat, and the problems of disposal of solid wastes and hazardous wastes.|

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT Probably most of the major environmental problems of the next century will result from the continuation and sharpening of existing problems that currently do not receive enough political attention. The problems are not necessarily noticed in many countries or then nothing is done even the situation has been detected. The most emerging issues are climate changes, freshwater scarcity, deforestation, and fresh water pollution and population growth. These problems are very complex and their interactions are hard to define. It is very important to examine problems trough the social-economic-cultural system. Even the interconnections between environmental problems are now better known, we still lack exact information on how the issues are linked, on what degree they interact and what are the most effective measures. One problem is to integrate land- and water use planning to provide food and water security (UNEP 1999).

[A] IMPACTS ON THE ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE
1. The creation of heat island
Materials like concrete, asphalt, bricks etc absorb and reflect energy differently than vegetation and soil. Cities remain warm in the night when the countryside has already cooled. IJREAS Volume 2, Issue 2 (February 2012) ISSN: 2249-3905 2. Changes in Air Quality

Human activities release a wide range of emissions into the environment including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, lead, and many other pollutants. 3. Changes in Patterns of Precipitation

Cities often receive more rain than the surrounding countryside since dust can provoke the condensation of water vapour into rain droplets. [B] IMPACTS ON THE LITHOSPHERE AND LAND RESOURCES
1. Erosion and other changes in land quality
Rapid development can result in very high levels of erosion and sedimentation in river channels. 2. Pollution
Pollutants are often dispersed across cities or concentrated in industrial areas or waste sites. Lead-...
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