What is Urban renewal? Discuss the issues and strategies of urban renewal of a state capital. Urban renewal is a program of land re-development in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. It can be envisaged as the physical and infrastructural changes in land use, built environment or intensity of the use of land or building that could be considered as inevitable outcome of the action from economic, social, political, technical and environmental forces acting upon urban areas at different times of its existence. It is a program designed to help communities improve and revitalize areas that have deteriorated, are unsafe and/ or show signs of economic or physical conditions that are detrimental to the community as a whole. Urban renewal could be in the form of:
-Physical change: Part of land is developed as a multistory building. -Infrastructural change: widening of roads, introduction of metro-rail, etc. -Change in land use: function of building changes, keeping the structure same eg residential to commercial -Change in built form: increase in no. of storeys.
-Change in environment: congestion on road cleared, trees planted , garbage removed, etc. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal often resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways, housing projects, and vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century. Urban renewal's effect on actual revitalization is a subject of intense debate. It is seen by proponents as an economic engine, and by opponents as a regressive mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expense of taxpayers and the poor. It carries a high cost to existing communities, and in many cases resulted in the destruction of vibrant—if run-down —neighborhoods. Urban renewal in its original form has been called a failure by many urban planners and civic leaders, and has since been reformulated with a focus on redevelopment of existing communities. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives. But even in this adapted form, Urban Renewal projects are still widely accused of abuse and corruption. Behind the idea of urban renewal was a belief that if the government removed people from such places and put them in better places, it would improve not only their lives and their self-image, but also their behavior. This idealistic philosophy became common in America by the end of World War I. IMPORTANCE OF URBAN RENEWAL
Urban renewal is critical to the success of local communities and the long-term prosperity of citizens living in urban areas. Without urban renewal, there would be no incentive for developers to tackle the challenges associated with redevelopment, and deteriorating downtown areas would be subject to increased crime and safety problems, while continued growth on the fringes of communities would add to the problem of urban sprawl.
NEED FOR URBAN RENEWAL
- Rise in land value
- Expansion of service centers
- Change in transportation mode
- Latest realization of global energy scenario.
BENEFITS OF URBAN RENEWAL
Providing matching funds for money from other sources (such as state or federal grants) Funding infrastructure, which brings additional funds to the community through permit fees, system development charges (SDCs), water and sewer hook‐up charges, etc. Increasing the value of property next to the urban renewal district. Improving the quality of life through new or renovated parks, roadways, civic and cultural facilities, and expanded economic development OBJECTIVES OF URBAN RENEWAL
- To eliminate sub optimal uses
- To create conditions for efficient and economic use of scarce and costly urban infrastructure. - To improve the efficiency of urban system
- To reduce social...
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