URBAN GEOGRAPHY TERMS
Action space—The geographical area that contains the space an indivdual interacts with on a daily basis. Annexation—the process of legally adding land area to a city. Beaux arts—This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones. Common characteristics of this period include wide thoroughfares, spacious parks, and civic monuments that stressed progress, freedom, and national unity. City Beautiful movement—Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world. Busing—busing is used in many U.S. cities to promote the racial integration of schools Blockbusting-- process by which real estate agents convince white owners living near a black area to sell their houses at low prices, preying on their fears that black families would soon move into their neighborhood and cause property values to decline. Central business district—The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail 1 stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge. Central City—the core city where the urban area originally began more than 100 years ago. Example: The city of Miami without suburbs like Pinecrest, Hialeah and Coral Gables. Central place theory—A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations. City-state—a state or country that is comprised of a city and its surrounding countryside. It was a common early form of urban settlement. Clustered rural settlement—the most common form of rural settlement. In this settlement a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings. This settlement is very common in India and China. Nucleated settlement this is by far the most common rural residential settlement in agricultural areas. Houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets, or slightly largers clusters called villages. Dispersed rural settlement—found in developed countries like the U.S. and Canada. It is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors. Colonial city Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures. Commuting—a journey to a destination that is taken various times in a week. For example the average worker commutes to work five times a week.
Concentric zone model Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central business district. Density gradient—as the distance from the center of the city increases, the density of residents and houses decreases. Disamenity sector—sector found in Latin American cities. It is a relatively stable slum area tha radiates ffom the central market to the outermost zone of peripheral squatter settlements that consist of high-density shantytowns. Edge city—cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment. European cities Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics such as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack. Unlike American cities, the center of tows are...
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