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ABSTRACT: This is a new technique for the protection of transmission systems by using the global positioning system (GPS) and fault generated transients.  In this scheme the relay contains a fault transient detection system together with a communication unit, which is connected to the power line through the high voltage coupling capacitors of the CVT. Relays are installed at each bus bar  in a transmission  network. These detect the fault  generated high frequency  voltage transient signals and record the time instant corresponding to when the initial travelling wave generated by the fault arrives at the bus bar. The decision to trip is based on the components as they propagate through the system. The communication unit is used to transmit and receive coded digital signals of the local information to and from the associated relays in the system .At each substation  relay determine the location of the fault by comparing the GPS time stay measured locally with those received from the  adjacent substations, extensive simulation studies presented here demonstrate feasibility of the scheme. Keywords- GPS, Fault detection, Transient analysis, Transient wave based protection scheme, fault current, signal processing. INTRODUCTION:

Accurate location of faults on power transmission systems can save time and resources for the electric utility industry. Line searches for faults are costly and can be inconclusive. Accurate information needs to be acquired quickly in a form most useful to the power system operator communicating to field personnel. To achieve this accuracy, a complete system of fault location technology, hardware, communications, and software systems can be designed. Technology is available which can help determine fault location to within a transmission span of 300 meters. Reliable self monitoring hardware can be configured for installation sites with varying geographic and environmental conditions. Communications systems can retrieve fault location information from substations and quickly provide that information to system operators. Other communication systems, such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), operate fault sectionalizing circuit breakers and switches remotely and provide a means of fast restoration. Data from SCADA, such as sequence of events, relays, and oscillographs, can be used for fault location selection and verification. Software in a central computer can collect fault information and reduce operator response time by providing only the concise information required for field personnel communications. Fault location systems usually determine “distance to fault” from a transmission line end. Field personnel can use this data to find fault locations from transmission line maps and drawings. Some utilities have automated this process by placing the information in a fault location Geographical Information System (GIS) computer. Since adding transmission line data to the computer can be a large effort, some utilities have further shortened the process by utilizing a transmission structures location database. Several utilities have recently created these databases for transmission inventory using GPS location         technology and handheld computers. The inventory database probably contains more information than needed for a fault location system, and a reduced version would save the large data-collection effort. Using this data, the power system operator could provide field personnel direct location information. Field personnel could use online information to help them avoid spending valuable time looking for maps and drawings and possibly even reduce their travel time. With precise information available, crews can prepare for the geography, climatic conditions, and means of transport to the faulted location. Repair time and resources would be optimized by the collected data before departure. Accurate fault location can also aid in fast restoration of power, particularly on transmission...
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