Unmanned Railway Gate

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  • Topic: Electric motor, Microcontroller, Stepper motor
  • Pages : 34 (10517 words )
  • Download(s) : 366
  • Published : February 2, 2013
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INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION
2. EMBEDDED SYSTEM
2.1 Definitions
2. Examples Of Embedded Systems
3. Microprocessor and Microcontroller
4. Microprocessor verses Microcontroller
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM
3.1.1 Block Diagram Description
3.1.2 555 Timers
3.1.3 Infrared Sensor
3.1.4 Microcontroller (89S52)
3.1.5 Power Supply
4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
4.1.1 555 Timers
4.1.2 Infrared Emitted Diode(TSAL 6200)
4.1.3 IR Receiver(TSOP)
4. DTMF generator
5. COMPONENTS & THEIR
5.1.1Microcontroller
5.1.2 Description Of 8952 Microcontroller
5.1.3 Features Of Microcontroller
5.1.4 Block Diagram Of Microcontroller
5.1.5 Pin Configurations
5.1.6 Pin Description

6.555 Timer
7.ULN 2003
1. Pin Connection
7.2 Description

8.STEPPER MOTOR

8.1 Description

8.2 Back EMF

8.3 Driving a stepper motor

9.FLOW CHART
10. SOURCE CODE
11. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

12. KEIL SOFTWARE
12.1 Software Description
13.CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

The railway gate is to be controlled so that the road traffic is to be predicted .The railway gate is to be closed when a train is passing by the way. The opening and closing of the gate is to be done using DC motors and this DC motor is controlled by micro controller. The signaling of the train is also controlled depending upon the gate position. Only when gate is closed the red signal is otherwise green signal. So in this project the railway signaling includes the gate control is done using microcontroller. The automatic opening and closing of the gate and also the signaling which depending on the gate position that will be controlled by the microcontroller.

INTRODUCTION
Present project is designed using 8051 microcontroller to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as ‘aft side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has crossed.

The same principle is applied for track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are traveling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Two sensors are placed at the either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then another sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to the controller. The interrupt service routine switches the track.  Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a...
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