Most common used metric u nits for volume: Liter (L), milliliter (mL), 1dm3 = 1L A liter is a cube 1 dm long on each side
1cm3 = 1mL A milliliter is a cube 1 cm long on each side

Uncertainty in Measurements

Different measuring devices have different uses and degrees of accuracy. Some examples are of these devices are:

Measure of average kinetic energy of particles in a sample
•Kelvic Scale (purely scientific)
•Celsius Scale (scientific)
•Farenheit Scale (U.S. Only)

Molecules and atoms become unstable at Absolute zero.
No negative temperatures of Kelvins
Celsius scale is based on properties of water
0° is the freezing point of water

The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature.
It is based on the properties of gases

K + °C + 273.15

The farenheit scale is not used in scientific measurements
°F = 1.8(°C) + 32
°C = 0.56 (°F-32)

Density

•Physical property of a substance d = m/v [g/mL, kg/L, kg/m3, g/cm3] •The formula for density is Mass per unit volume d = m/v

Significant Figures

•Digits that were measured (sig figs)
•When rounding calculated numbers, we pay attention to significant figures so we do not overstate the accuracy of our answers. •All nonzero digits are significant
•Zeros between two...

...during measurements. For an experiment to be successful, especially those that involve measurements, the number of significant figures must be known. Significant figures are the digits required to express a measured quantity and thus reflect the accuracy of the measurement.
Uncertainty is defined as the smallest increment that can be measured and is defined by the instrument used.
An error is defined as any deviation from the standard value. Errors could either be systematic or random. Systematic errors are caused by measurements that are not properly calibrated while random errors are caused by chance.
Methodology
Figure 1: Experimental set-up using vernier caliper
Figure 2: Micrometer caliper
In the experiment, three measuring devices are used to obtain the measurement of a sphere with known composition: vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and a foot rule.
Ten individual measurements are then made for each of the device. After the measurements are obtained, the mean diameter of the sphere was calculated using the formula:
Mean Diameter = Σdiameter
n
Using this data, the deviation of each measurement was calculated,
d = /reading – mean diameter/
as well as its average deviation
(a.d.) = Σd
n
The volume and the density of the sphere were then calculated using the appropriate formula.
Volume (V) =...

...Laboratory Techniques & Measurements | Lab Section: 73426/0 |
Data Tables:
Length and Measurements
Object Measured | Length in cm | Length in mm |
Key | 6.4cm | 64mm |
Fork | 26.5cm | 265mm |
CD | 17cm | 170mm |
Warm Temperature Measurements
Hot tap water temperature _73___˚C
Boiling water temperature _101___˚C
Cold Temperature Measurements
Cold tap water temperature __15__˚C
Ice water temperature __0__˚C
VolumeMeasurements
Volume of completely filled small test tube __16__mL
Number of drops in 1 mL ___21_drops
Volume of the micro pipet __99__ drops _4___mL
Density Measurements
Mass of graduated cylinder 16.5____g
Mass of graduated cylinder and water _20.5___g
Net mass of the water __4__g
Density of the water __.8__ g/mL
Mass of graduated cylinder and alcohol _20.45___g
Net mass of the alcohol __3.95__g
Density of the alcohol __.79__ g/mL
Volume of half filled graduated cylinder _30.1___mL
Volume of half filled graduated cylinder and metal bolt ___38.1_mL
Volume of the metal bolt _1___mL
Mass of the metal bolt __8__g
Density of the metal bolt __8__g/mL
Conclusion:
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the international system of units, to become more familiar with common laboratory equipment and techniques, to gain proficiency in determining the volume, mass, lenth, and temperature of a...

...Order of Magnitude
* 100.5 = 3.16 (rounding value)
* e.g. 4,200,000=4.2*106
* since 4.2 > 3.16 the magnitude is 107 (6 is rounded up)
The SI System of Fundamental and Derived Units
* Fundamental SI Units:
Quantity | SI Unit | SI Symbol |
length | meter | m |
mass | kilogram | kg |
time | second | s |
electric current | ampere | A |
thermodynamic temperature | Kelvin | K |
amount of substance | mole | m |
luminous intensity | candela | cd |
* Derived SI Units
Quantity | SI Unit | SI Symbol | Fundamental SI Units involved |
frequency | hertz | Hz | s-1 |
force | Newton | N | kg*m*s-2 |
work/energy | joule | J | kg*m2*s-2 |
power | watt | W | kg*m2*s-3 |
pressure | Pascal | Pa | kg*m-1*s-2 |
charge | coulomb | C | A*s |
potential difference | volt | V | kg*m2*s-3*A-1 |
resistance | ohm | Ω | kg*m2*s-3*A-2 |
Systematic and Random Errors
* Systematic error
* Affects each measurement the same way
* Error by system
* E.g. lack of calibration (zero error)
* E.g. Wrong theory or equation
* Not accurate
* Random error
* Different for each measurement
* By human error or environmental influence
* E.g. temperature variation
* E.g. Not enough data collected
* Not precise
* Accuracy – how close the results are from...

...
Experiment 1
Laboratory Techniques and Measurements
Purpose: To determine measurements of different items that vary from solids to liquids
and be able convert those values to other SI units of measurement.
Procedure: I used a variety of scientific tools such as; a ruler, beaker, graduated cylinder,
volumetric flask, thermometer, burner, and digital scale to find unknown values
of measurements for each of the indicated items and solutions. Then I used
those measurements to further convert to another unit of measurement or
calculate a new measurement with the values I had previously determined.
Data Tables:
Exercise 1: Length, Temperature, and Mass
Data Table 1: Length measurements.
Object
Length (cm)
Length (mm)
Length (m)
CD or DVD
12.0
120.0
0.120
Key
5.3
53.0
0.053
Spoon
17.3
173.0
0.173
Fork
20.2
202.0
0.202
Data Table 2: Temperature measurements.
Water
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°F)
Temperature (K)
Hot from tap
47.0
116.6
320.15
Boiling
100.0
212.0
373.15
Boiling for 5 minutes
100.0
212.0
373.15
Cold from tap
26.0
78.8
299.15
Ice water – 1 minute
10.0
50.0
283.15
Ice water – 5 minutes
2.0...

...BioLab3
Lab Report 1
Measurement
Student Name:
I. Length Measurement
EXERCISE 1 – Measuring length using the meter
A dime and a meter stick have been used to determine the following:
How thick is one dime?
1
mm
How thick would a stack of ten dimes be?
10
mm
How thick would a stack of one hundred dimes be?
100
mm
How thick would a stack of one thousand dimes be?
1,000
mm
Determine the height of each of the following stacks of dimes in metric units.
10 dimes =
10
millimeters (mm)
10 dimes =
1
centimeters (cm)
10 dimes =
.1
decimeters (dm)
10 dimes =
.01
meters (m)
EXERCISE 2 – Measuring length
Measure the length of the following objects using the most appropriate units. Record your measurements. Convert this unit into the other units in the table.
Paper Clip
Leaf
Tree Branch
Your Height
millimeter
45
34
63
1,625.6
centimeter
4.5
3.4
6.3
162.56
decimeter
.45
.34
.63
16.256
meter
.045
.034
.063
1.6256
II. Metric Units
A. Size Comparison of Metric Units
B. Conversion of Metric Units
EXERCISE 3 – Metric conversions
Nothing to record
EXERCISE 4 – Measure distances and convert metric units
Measure the distances between letters on the line in millimeters and then convert to the other...

...Introduction
Wrong or inaccurate measurements can lead to wrong decisions, which can have serious consequences, costing money and even lives. The human and financial consequences of wrong decisions based on poor measurement being taken in matters as important as environmental change and pollution are almost incalculable. It is important therefore to have reliable and accurate measurements which are agreed and accepted by the relevant authorities worldwide. Metrologists are therefore continuously involved in the development of new measurement techniques, instrumentation and procedures, to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for greater accuracy, increased reliability and rapidity of measurements.
A measurement tells us about a property of something. It might tell us how heavy an object is, or how hot, or how long it is. A measurement gives a number to that property, expressed in the appropriate unit. Physics is an experimental science, and as such it is largely a science of measurement. Measurement is the process of quantifying experience of the external world. Many measuring intsruments of great accuracy and sensitivity have been developed to meet the requirements of the physics laboratory. The measurent of length is of fundamental importance in scientific work hence is fitting to begin experimental work with this type of...

...1411
Lone Star College - Kingwood
Khare
MEASUREMENTS LAB
OBJECTIVES
Review the correct use of different pieces of laboratory apparatus and understand the accuracy each is capable of
Provide experience in making measurements to the proper number of significant figures, perform calculations from the
measurements and report results to the proper number of significant figures.
Do calculations and conversions using significant figures.MEASUREMENT OF MASS
TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE
What is the decimal place of the first uncertain number? _______
Use the triple beam balance to weigh each of the following and record data to correct number of significant figures. Show
units.
large test tube
_________
250 ml beaker
_________
evaporating dish _________
ANALYTICAL BALANCE (4 DECIMAL PLACE)
What is the decimal place of the first uncertain number? _______
Use the 4 decimal analytical balance to weigh the following and record the data to the correct number of significant figures.
Show units.
Crucible w/o lid
_________
125 ml erlenmeyer flask
_________
MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH
METER STICK
What is the decimal place of the first uncertain number? _______
Use meter stick to measure the length of the following and record data to the correct number of significant figures. Show
units.
length of text book
_______
height of text book
_______
width of text book...

...Equivalent Units
If the unfinished Work-In-_________ units were disassembled, how many complete units could be constructed from the parts?
Finished Good (4 parts = 1 unit) 1 2 3 4 Work-in-Process (incomplete units) (3 units with total of 6 parts) 1 2 3 4 5 6
Equivalent Units = 1.5 units
6 WIP Parts ÷ 4 Finished Goods parts = 1.5 Eq Units
Four Sections of Cost Report
1. Physical _________ 2. Equivalent Units 3. Cost per Equivalent Unit 4. Cost Allocation
1
Beginning WIP (5,000 units) $10,808 Direct Materials $15,100 Conversion Costs Current Period Costs: $49,000 Direct Materials $74,000 Conversion Costs
Example Problem
50,000 units started into production Ending WIP (4,000 units) Direct Materials 60% ____________ Conversion Costs 75% complete
Input:
1. Physical Units
5,000 units 50,000 units 55,000 units
Beginning Inventory Units Started into Production Total Input Units Output: __________________ Units Ending Inventory Units Total Output Units
? units 4,000 units ? units
Input:
1. Physical Units
5,000 units 50,000 units 55,000...