United States Pre-Civil War History

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October 11th
American Confederation- june and july of 1788 that leaders of cities would organize celebrations of ratification of the constitution Benjamin Rush- social classes “forgot its claims”
parades in Phil. and New York showed strong support
1788- strong support in urban environments; nations prospects were not promising (all americans 1790 3.9 million lived near Atlantic coast, large areas west of App. laid in native american hands, british had military outpost near great lakes, fears that spain could close port at new orleans to suffocate american commerce on mississippi) communication and transportation summer of 1788 were primitive, US was very rural, LESS than one america in 30 lived in places with 8,000 people or more vast territory and ethnicity

John Adams- “we have no americans in america”
in 1783 the future for US seemed to be not well
first written constitution- articles of confederation in 1777 would be ratified by states 4 years later; articles would seek to balance need for national; centralized power posed fear for liberty, resembled a treaty for mutual offense parts: 1. one house congress in which each state cast one vote; 2. no president to enforce or judiciary to interpret; 3. major decisions would require 9 states to agree; 4. powers given to national government by articles were essential for independence (power to declare war, conduct foreign affairs, alone can make treaties with other governments, this congress had no financial resources (could coin money and levy taxes; revenue came from contributions); 5. to amend or change the articles of confederation in any way everyone had to agree (all 13); 1781-1788 no amendments would receive approval from all states articles would make a energetic Gov.. impossible

accomplishments: 1. national control of land west from the states northwest ordinance of 1787- call for establishment of 3 to 5 states north of the ohio river and east of mississippi; US would admit this population as equal members; territorial expansion; do 2 things- 1. assumed that an indians presence would disappear through anything; 2. slavery is prohibited both national Gov.. and country faced bad economic problems; borrowed large sums of money by large interest bonds and buying supplies with notes confederation unable to pay interest or debt; american ships were also finding trouble trading; markets are flooded, driving wages and draining money from country states would enact tariff duties, indebted farmers would press state Gov.. for relief from having their land taken away to increase currency, several states printed large sums of paper money with nothing to back it up others would enact laws postponing debt collection

in late 1786- groups of debt farmers led by Daniel Shays would close down the courts in Western Massachusetts so creditors cant take people to court; participants in Shay’s rebellion received no sympathy from governor and Benjamin Lincoln would dispersed rebels in jan. 1787 Alexander Hamilton- proponent of energetic Gov..

Sept. 1786 delegates from 6 states would meet at Annapolis, Maryland to discuss interstate commerce; they would propose another in Philadelphia to Constitutional Convention (Thomas Jefferson and John Adams- gathering of men in ability, weight, and amendment was not present) among present were George Washington, George Mason, Benjamin Franklin most men present were born into property building families; all prosperous 1 in 10 of 1 percent of Americans attended college, fewer; more than half achieved this 22 served in army, shared social status and political experience; advocating for big government James Madison- Virginia Plan- proposed: bicameral legislator, vote counts on population New Jersey Plan: unicameral house, each state casts one vote Compromise: each state has 2 members, lower houses based on population; senators chosen by state legislators for 6 year terms; representative elected by people every 2 years showed to be less...
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