United States Constitution and Federalism

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Federalism Concept and Nature Under Various Constitutions

Acknowlegdement
Doctrinal method of research

Part-1

Introduction

• Introduction to Federalism

Part - 2

Meaning Definition and Concept of Federalism
• Meaning and Definitions

• Nature of Federal government

• Essential Features of Federalism

Part – 3

Origin and Development of Federalism

• Origin of Federalism

• History of Federalism

• Development of Federal Concept

Part – 4

Federalism in other Countries in Comparision with India
• Concept of Federalism and Federal Government in

1. United States of America

2. Canada

3. Australia

• Functioning of Federalism in India

• The Supreme Court of India on the concept of Federalism

Chapter – 5

Conclusion

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Part-I
INTRODUCTION OF FEDERALISM

Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant with a governing representative head.

The term "federalism" is also used to describe a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (such as states or provinces). Federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments, creating what is often called a federation. Proponents are often called federalists[1].

In Europe, "federalist" is sometimes used to describe those who favor a common federal government, with distributed power at regional, national and supranational levels. Most European federalists want this development to continue within the European Union. European federalism originated in post-war Europe; one of the more important initiatives was Winston Churchill's speech in Zurich in 1946

In Canada, federalism typically implies opposition to sovereigntist movements (most commonly Quebec separatism). The governments of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, India and Mexico, among others, are also organized along federalist principles. Federalism may encompass as few as two or three internal divisions, as is the case in Belgium or Bosnia and Herzegovina. In general, two extremes of federalism can be distinguished: at one extreme, the strong federal state is almost completely unitary, with few powers reserved for local governments; while at the other extreme, the national government may be a federal state in name only, being a confederation in actuality. In 1999, the Government of Canada established the Forum of Federations as an international network for exchange of best practices among federal and federalizing countries. Headquartered in Ottawa, the Forum of Federations partner governments include Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Mexico, Nigeria and Switzerland. Some Christian denominations are organized on federalist principles; in these churches this is known as ecclesiastic or theological federalism[2].

The concept of the federalism means the distribution of power between two Governments, in other words it is the classification Government. In modern time the Government can be classified on the base of the nature of political organization[3]. Let us begin by defining federalism or a federal political system. People often contrast "federal systems" with "unitary political systems" (i.e. systems with only one source of central authority). Federal systems are also often juxtaposed with very diverse modes of government or approaches to management. Some see little difference between "federalism and decentralization," or "federalism and devolution," or "federalism and subsidiarity." Although there are similarities among these concepts, they should not be confused with one another. Under the umbrella term "federal political system" there are several possible configurations, the most familiar of which...
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