United Nations

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United Nations: Its Hopes and Hurdles
Outlines:
1. Introduction
2. Establishment of United Nations
3. Causes for establish UN i.e. Failure of League & WW II 4. League Of Nations
* Aims
* Causes failure of League of Nations
i. Absence Of Great Powers
ii. Domination Of France and England
iii. Rise Of Dictatorship
iv. Limitations Of Legal Methods
v. Loss Of Faith In League
vi. Constitutional Defect
vii. Narrow Nationalism
viii. Lack Of Mutual Co-Operation
ix. Separate Lines Of Thoughts
x. Manchurian Crisis
5. World War II
* Axis powers
* Allies powers
6. History of UN
* Origin of the United Nations
* Atlantic Charter
* The United Nations Charter
7. Purposes of UN
* To maintain international peace and security
* To develop friendly relations among nations
* To cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights * To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations
8. The Six Basic Organs
i. The General Assembly
ii. The Security Council
iii. The International Court of Justice
iv. The Economic and Social Council
v. The Secretariat
vi. The Trusteeship Council
9. Early Deadlock
10. Search for Financial Compromise
11. Creation of Disarmament Commission in 1952
12. Establishment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 13. The Cost of Peacekeeping
14. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
15. VETO forces (United Nations Security Council)
16. Basic history of VETO forces
* China
* France
* Russia
* United Kingdom
* United States
17. United Nations and noble prizes
18. Criticism of United Nations
* Addresses only the strategic interests and political motives of the permanent members * the Security Council’s ineffectiveness and irrelevance * Illogical, unjust and completely undemocratic structure and mechanism of UN * powers of nuclear club is unchecked

* Role of Elicit nations
* Membership in the UN Security Council should be expanded and include non-nuclear powers * Veto power controversy
* powerful Security Council system does not have distinctions between the legislative, executive, and judiciary branches * Oil-for-Food Programme scandal
* Peacekeeping child sexual abuse scandal
19. Suggestive Measures
i. Empowerment of General Assembly
ii. Elimination of veto Status
20. Conclusions

* The United Nations (UN) is an international association of independent states that was founded by the victorious nations of World War II to keep the peace their efforts had won. Its supreme goal was to end war, but by the end of the 20th century, the organization had expanded its mandate to cover a varied agenda that included such issues as human rights, world poverty, public health, and environmental concerns. Membership was eventually extended to almost every country on Earth, growing from the initial 51 member nations in 1945 to 193 by 2012. * After World War II it was expected that the great powers would work together to keep the peace. Instead, disagreements between the Soviet Union and the West beginning in the late 1940s created a state of international tension called the Cold War. The Soviet Union's goal was to spread the communist system of government throughout the world. The Western nations, led by the United States, joined together to resist communist expansion. Both sides built up their weapons, which included nuclear arms. During this era the United Nations played a key role as peacemaker between East and West. After the Cold War ended in the early 1990s with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United Nations continued to promote peace and cooperation throughout the many troubled areas of the world, adapting to circumstances that were not dreamed of by its founders. * League Of Nations was created after WWI and was first...
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