Wars of the Three Kingdoms and Ulster Plantation
In the 1630s, Presbyterians in Scotland staged a rebellion against Charles I for trying to impose Anglicanism. The same was attempted in Ireland, where most Scots colonists were Presbyterian. Charles I subsequently raised an army largely composed of Irish Catholics, and sent them to Ulster in preparation to invade Scotland. The English and Scottish parliaments then threatened to attack this army. In the 1640s, the Ulster Plantation was thrown into turmoil by civil wars that raged in Ireland, England and Scotland. The wars saw Irish rebellion against the planters, twelve years of bloody war, and ultimately the re-conquest of the province by the English parliamentary New Model Army that confirmed English and Protestant dominance in the province. In October 23, 1641, the Ulster Catholics staged a rebellion. The mobilised natives turned on the "British" colonists, massacring about 4000 and expelling about 8,000 more. The massacres had a devastating and lasting impact on the Ulster Protestant population. In the summer of 1642, the Scottish Parliament sent some 10,000 soldiers to quell the Irish rebellion. In revenge for the massacres of Scottish colonists, the army committed many atrocities against the Catholic population. The Scottish army fought against the rebels until 1650. The main beneficiaries of the postwar Cromwellian settlement were English Protestants. The Wars eliminated the last major Catholic landowners in Ulster.
Continued migration from Scotland to Ulster
One wave of Scottish immigration to Ulster took place in the 1690s, when tens of thousands of Scots fled a famine (1696–1698) in the border region of Scotland. It was at this point that Scottish Presbyterians became the majority community in the province. Whereas in the 1660s, they made up some 20% of Ulster's population (though 60% of its British population) by 1720 they were an absolute majority in Ulster. During the 18th century, rising Scots...
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